She factory reset my phone so i lost that account I don’t have permission to post pics of her anymore but i had permission to post those pics that was like 3 years ago or something
Lightning did not simply flash behind Jesus one time like it says in the intro that is not the story but its in here.
I can work on other aspects of this plan such as programming this for search engines but it’s already been picked up
That was already the plan
This blog had to be created
My girlfriend flipped the mattress and a cigarette tube was like this
Eminem bought Michael Jackson’s house……… When he spent the night the first time Michael Jackson’s ghost appears to him “should have seen the look on eminem’s face” then the ghost hopped into eminem’s body and now the real slim shady is back!
I created a new Facebook profile today and when I got to James reinerson the one who can voutch for me about the Jesus statue well look
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This article is about the telecommunication standard. For other uses, see 5G (disambiguation).
5G is an advanced wireless technology that has begun wide deployment in 2019. 4 million Koreans have 5G phones in October 2019, with 5 million expected by year end. China has deployed over 100,000 base stations. 150 million 5G mobile subscribers are expected by 2020 in China. Nine companies are shipping 5G phones in December 2019, driving prices as low as US$470 in China. Indoor hubs, sometimes called MiFi, are available from Verizon in the US, Optus in Australia, Three in the UK and others. Virtually every major telco in the developed world is deploying or intends to deploy.5G
3GPP’s 5G logoIntroducedLate 2018
5G millimeter wave is the fastest, with actual speeds often being a gigabit or two. Frequencies are above 24 GHz reaching up to 72 GHz which is above Extremely high frequency‘s lower boundary. The reach is short, so more cells are required. mmWave has difficulty traversing many walls and windows, so indoor coverage is limited.
5G mid-band is the most widely deployed, in over 20 networks. Speeds in a 100 MHz band are usually 100-400 megabits. In the lab and occasionally in the field, speeds can go over a gigabit. Frequencies deployed are from 2.4 GHz to 4.2 GHz. Sprint and China Mobile are using 2.5 GHz spectrum. Others are mostly between 3.3 and 4.2 GHz. Reach is better. Many areas can be covered simply by upgrading existing towers, which lowers the cost.
5G low-band offers similar capacity to advanced 4G. T-Mobile and AT&T are launching low-band sevices on the first week of December. T-Mobile CTO Neville Ray warns that speeds on his 600 MHz 5G may be as low as 25 Mbit/s down. AT&T, using 850 MHz, will also usually deliver less than 100 Mbit/s in 2019. The performance will improve, but cannot be much higher than good 4G in the same spectrum.
Verizon, AT&T, and almost all 5G in 2019 have latencies between 25-35 milliseconds. The “air latency” (between your phone and a tower) in 2019 equipment is 8-12 ms. The latency to the server, further back in the network, raise the average to ~30 ms, 25%-40% lower than typical 4G deployed. Adding “Edge Servers” close to the towers can bring latency down to 10-20 ms. Lower latency, such as the often touted 1 ms, is years away and does not include the time to the server.
The industry association 3GPP defines any system using “5G NR” (5G New Radio) software as, “5G”, a definition that came into general use by late 2018. Previously, some reserved the term for systems that deliver speeds of 20 GHz shared called for by ITUIMT-2020. 3GPP will submit their 5G NR to the ITU. In addition to traditional mobile operator services, 5G NR also addresses specific requirements for private mobile networks ranging from industrial IoT to critical communications.
Investing in 5G
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
When I greeted him at the door
We were walking and I told her I know my book dosent matter to you but it’s the Bible for some people. She said that mattered to her a lot.
Read the blog about Tyler’s cross. Anyways the illiterates pipe was a dead giveaway but I didn’t do anything at that point that comes later.
Anyways the illiterate one is friends with Tyler. He put me to sleep talking a whole bunch of bullshit about a whole bunch of junk. I went to sleep that night.
When I woke up my girlfriend was gone, she came back, I was borrowing Al’s phone, then the phone and Katie dissappear. All I know is what I felt.
I went to someone’s house and right as he was walking in I walked out and said “I banish you from my house” he sold them a phone but it had stickers on it…
When I went home there were cops in front of my neighbors house but they were there for her she freaked out because I wasn’t home and broke some windows im pretty sure the cops told her to “listen to your husband” when they took her to the hospital.
I felt his soul inside of me after that and I went back to where he was and asked him if he wanted his soul back, we both got kicked out, we walked towards my house together then he prematurely parted ways and after that I felt my girlfriend.
Then I walked directly to my neighbors, the healer was there, and not very long after that she gave me a healing. We talked about the mist swirling inside of me and she explored my soul and said it was beautiful. At some point I told her there was a dry ice cube there then on her very first healing she opened up my crown Chakra. I saw the illiterate one today but he is not allowed over at my house anymore. What actually happened I can only speculate but I know what I feel.
An illiterate person had the nerve to try and steal my girlfriend while I was writing the Bible.
She came home the very next day.
I quit playing football senior year to work a job but I use to play sports in school.
I played offensive line, defensive line, and special teams. The coach had a special play involving me and he only used it one time but it almost worked.
The ball was handed to me and I went for it. It would have been a touchdown but my best friend at the time was blocking me and we collided. Otherwise it would have been a touchdown.
One time the coach let me drive his truck lol
When I was a little kid I use to fart on my grandpa’s head and we called it a “stinky”
then he got roofied and woken up by the gay mafia, it activated him, and he shouted “this is awsome!”
i had a meeting with these people and they dont want me because im schizophrenic, but they have a message im suppose to bring to you. there coming for you……………….
That he downloaded information from the realm of infinite knowledge I’m pretty sure of it
Dc stands for David Charles
We talked a great deal about my soul during the healing but it was a delayed event
I am Jerome Allen Hickman I’m 97% aryan with 3% a lost Indian tribe I have ab positive blood the I am Jerome Allen Hickman I’m 97% aryan with 3% a lost Indian tribe I have ab positive blood the newest and only universal blood transfusion recipient blood I’m infinitely powerful in syncrinicity I am the Adam of a new species on this planet and this is my bible jahisprojectillogic.home.blog and only universal blood transfusion recipient blood im schizophrenic,I’m infinitely powerful in syncrinicity I am the Adam of a new species on this planet and this is my bible jahisprojectillogic.home.blog
I am Jerome Allen Hickman I’m 97% aryan with 3% a lost Indian tribe I have ab positive blood the newest and only universal blood transfusion recipient blood I’m infinitely powerful in syncrinicity I am the Adam of a new species on this planet and this is my bible jahisprojectillogic.home.blog
today is 12-14-2019
these will be ny two new sites when i get that far
he said i was white but im not a brother then i said i was neutral to the aryan brotherhood then i asked if theyd help me with my rap career he said no so i said i wanna be indpendant but if i go to prison i would work for them temporarly then he talked about prospects i let him use my computer and he got mad because i took 2 cigarettes shit escalated i said if you got a problem with me i will masacer the aryan brotherhood “even though i didn’t want to go to war with them” and i told him its my trailor and that im the leader here he agreed then im like get the fuck out and he was nice and i said he could stay because he was being nice
send the illitirate one back lol i tried giving him some of his soul back then the healer it was all after tyler
the first time i went in my room and shaggy was on my bed and i thought he was my girlfriend for atleast 10 seconds. when i saw it was him i started laughing and i was instantley fine.
last night my girlfriend was doing something with the door and somehow well this is what it looked like from my perspective, somehow katie hit my illiterate friend in the head with the door and it looked like the 3 stooges. i thought it was fake i didn’t know but it sure looked like it hurt. god did i laugh for so long he learned a very important lesson.
hes like 35 and thinks hes gonna become an illiterate navy seal
half and half Norwegian and German with a little bit of an unknown tribe of Indian
The Celestine Prophecy: An Adventure is a 1993 novel by James Redfield that discusses various psychological and spiritual ideas rooted in multiple ancient Eastern traditions and New Age spirituality. The main character undertakes a journey to find and understand a series of nine spiritual insights in an ancient manuscript in Peru. The book is a first-person narrative of the narrator’s spiritual awakening as he goes through a transitional period of his life.
- 3Publishing history, adaptations and sequels
- 4Reception and critique
- 6External links
The book discusses various psychological and spiritual ideas that are rooted in many ancient Eastern traditions, such as how opening to new possibilities can help an individual establish a connection with the Divine. The main character undertakes a journey to find and understand a series of nine spiritual insights in an ancient manuscript in Peru. The book is a first-person narrative of spiritual awakening. The narrator is in a transitional period of his life and begins to notice instances of synchronicity, which is the belief that coincidences have a meaning personal to those who experience them.
The story opens with the male narrator becoming reacquainted with an old female friend, who tells him about the Insights contained in a manuscript dating to 600 BC, which has been only recently translated. After this encounter leaves him curious, he decides to go to Peru. On the airplane, he meets a historian who also happens to be interested in the manuscript.
The historian explains how the world is currently undergoing an enormous shift in consciousness, elaborating on how things had been generally understood until now: 1) at first people believed the world to be governed by the forces of divinity; everything could be explained as an act of a god or gods, 2) with increased knowledge of their world brought about through scientific inquiry, people turned to the men and women of science for an explanation of life and their world, and 3) without a satisfactory answer from science, people instead had them focus on efforts to improve their lives materially and subdue the earth, illustrated by a hyper-focus on economic conditions and fluctuations. What was now occurring, explained the historian, was that the baseness of current conditions was revealing itself in our souls. We had become restless and were now ready for another fundamental shift in thinking that would eventually bring about a better world.
He also learns that powerful figures within the Peruvian government and the Catholic Church are opposed to the dissemination of the Insights. This is dramatically illustrated when police try to arrest and then shoot the historian soon after his arrival. This forces the narrator to live a nomadic lifestyle amongst those wishing to bring news of the manuscript to the public at large.
The narrator then learns the Insights, one by one, often experiencing the Insight before actually reading the text, while being pursued by forces of the Church and the Peruvian government. In the end, he succeeds in learning the first nine Insights and returns to the United States, with a promise of a Tenth Insight soon to be revealed. The Insights are given only through summaries and illustrated by events in the plot. The text of no complete Insight is given, which the narrator claims is for brevity’s sake; he notes that the “partial translation” of the Ninth Insight was 20 typewritten pages in length.
In the novel, the Maya civilization left ruins in Peru where the manuscript was found, whereupon the Incas took up residence in the abandoned Maya cities after the Maya had reached an “energy vibration level” which made them cross a barrier into a completely spiritual reality.
Publishing history, adaptations and sequels
As of May 2005, the book had sold over 5 million copies worldwide, with translations into 34 languages.
A film adaptation was released in 2006.
Redfield expanded the book’s concept into a series, which he completed in three sequels:
- The Tenth Insight: Holding the Vision (1996)
- The Secret of Shambhala: In Search of the Eleventh Insight (1999)
- The Twelfth Insight: The Hour of Decision (2011)
Reception and critique
The book was generally well received by readers and spent 165 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller list. The Celestine Prophecy has also received some criticism, mostly from the literary community, who point out that the plot of the story is not well developed and serves only as a delivery tool for the author’s ideas about spirituality. James Redfield has admitted that, even though he considers the book to be a novel, his intention was to write a parable, a story meant to illustrate a point or teach a lesson.
- ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- ^ Berling, Michael (29 September 2016). “The Celestine Prophecy”. Voices in the Net.
- ^ Prestashop 1.5. “Book Editing Services – Llumina Press”. llumina.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- ^ “The Twelfth Insight – About”. thetwelfthinsight.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- ^ “Books That Were Originally Self-Published”. google.com. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- ^ The Celestine Prophecy Archived July 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Commentary on The Celestine Prophecy by Tom Butler-Bowdon
- The Celestine Prophecy entry of the Skeptic’s Dictionary
im not that gullible
what the fuck
am i a decedent of jesus? i never claimed i knew the answer
its not funny what happened but its funny that i think jesus was schizophrenic my son no offense this is another “hence fourth”
it was really good but incomplete i didn’t read it
i dont know you
and i didn’t even do anything to that child molesting mother fucker he molests people
dont jump the gun mon
me and the voices fight over when its mean and when its nice
im classified as whats known as a vulnerable adult but i hide it well but its just a matter of time before i do something schizophrenic again its an instinct
Ricky T. Dunigan (November 17, 1973 – December 20, 2013), better known by his stage name Lord Infamous, was an American rapper from Memphis, Tennessee. He was a co-founder of Three 6 Mafia. He was the older brother of DJ Paul. His lyrics touched on subjects such as horror, Satanism, mass murder, and torture, along with more common hip-hop themes such as crime and drugs.
- 5External links
Lord Infamous started his music career in the early 1990s with his half-brother DJ Paul. They were fairly popular in the south Memphis area and released self-recorded tapes in their neighborhood, school, and local shops. Their first known tape entitled Portrait of a Serial Killa, was released in 1992.
1991–2005: Three 6 Mafia
In 1991 Lord Infamous and DJ Paul met up with fellow north Memphis rapper and producer Juicy J. These three along with a few other local rappers formed a group initially called “The Backyard Posse”, which later went on to be known as “Triple 6 Mafia”. The first record deal for the group was with Nick Scarfo and Prophet Posse. Under the label they released their first underground album, Smoked Out, Loced Out in 1994. At the same time, Lord Infamous released his first underground solo album, Lord of Terror. Shortly after in 1995, the group changed its name to Three 6 Mafia and released their debut album, Mystic Stylez. At this time Three 6 Mafia members DJ Paul and Juicy J were creating their own record company, Hypnotize Minds, which Lord Infamous became a part of. The group went on to release 4 more mainstream albums and numerous solo projects through the mid-2000s, though during this time the group became smaller due to the departure of several artists for various reasons.
2006–2013: Black Rain Entertainment
In 2006, following jail time which led to a breach of contract with Sony, Lord Infamous was forced to end work with Three 6 Mafia, leaving the group on good terms. Lord Infamous later reunited with DJ Paul for Paul’s 2009 solo album, Scale-A-Ton. This marked the first time they had worked together since Three 6 Mafia‘s 2005 album Choices II: The Setup.
Soon after his departure from Three 6 Mafia, Lord Infamous and long time friend and Memphis rapper II Tone formed a new record company, “Black Rain Entertainment”. Shortly thereafter Memphis rapper Mac Montese and Atlanta rapper T-Rock became involved with the company, forming what is now known as “The Club House Click”. They went on to release several group albums, solo albums and EPs, including several solo albums from Lord Infamous – The Man, The Myth, The Legacy in 2007, Futuristic Rowdy Bounty Hunter in 2010, Scarecrow Tha Terrible in 2011, Legendary Hits, King Of Horrorcore and Back From Tha Dead (Deadly Proverbs) in 2012. A group album with The Club House Click entitled Land Of Da Lost was released on November 27, 2012. On February 11, 2013, Lord Infamous released his eighth solo effort entitled Scarecrow Tha Terrible, Pt. Two. He released Voodoo, his final solo effort prior to his death, on October 11, 2013.
2013-2014: Da Mafia 6ix
Main article: Three 6 Mafia § Da Mafia 6ix
In 2013, Lord Infamous rejoined four of the original Three 6 Mafia members to form the group Da Mafia 6ix. The group released their debut mixtape 6ix Commandments on November 12, 2013, with plans to release a studio album in 2014.
Lord Infamous was also featured in three songs after his death on Da Mafia 6ix Hear Sum Evil mix tape (2014)
On December 20, 2013, Lord Infamous died of a heart attack in his sleep at his mother’s home in Memphis, Tennessee. DJ Paul confirmed his death to online hip hop magazine HipHopDX, stating: “He had a heart attack in his sleep. His mother found him dead this morning. He had been dead, the doctors say, for about five hours.
Main article: Lord Infamous discography
- Lord of Terror (1994)
- The Man, The Myth, The Legacy (2007)
- Futuristic Rowdy Bounty Hunter (2010)
- Scarecrow Tha Terrible (2011)
- Legendary Hits (2012)
- King of Horrorcore (2012)
- Back From Tha Dead (Deadly Proverbs) (2012)
- Scarecrow Tha Terrible, Pt. Two (2013)
- Fire & Ice (2013)
- Voodoo (2013)
- Legend (2014)
- Anarchy (EP) (2016)
- ^ “DJ Paul on ‘Seed of 6ix’ Consisting of Lord Infamous’ Son and Paul’s Nephew (Part 1)”. VLADTV. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- ^ Meara, Paul. “Three 6 Mafia’s Lord Infamous Passes Away”. HipHop DX. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- ^ “DJ Paul on ‘Seed of 6ix’ Consisting of Lord Infamous’ Son and Paul’s Nephew (Part 1)”. 16 December 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- ^ “Interview with Lord Infamous – Part 1”. Southern Hospitality. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- ^ “Land Of Da Lost Available Now! -Black Rain Entertainment”. Officialblackrainent.com. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- ^ “DJ Paul Announces Da Mafia 6ix Album Info”. HipHopDX. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- ^ Meara, Paul (December 21, 2013). “DJ Paul Says He’s In Disbelief Over Death Of Half-Brother Lord Infamous”. HipHopDX. Cheri Media Group. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
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i have a purpose lord infamous was trying to legalize torture thats schizophrenic as fuck im alive and hes dead but we both rapped at the same time but hes arguabley my master even though were on different sides. wait till i get to the point where i record my next songs. i have faith in god. all i ask is like a hug or something and let me speak
its true love its like theres a beam coming out my solar plexus but thats not where it comes from im the only one who feels it. im a popular schizophrenic writer/rapper/comedian shes a hot unpopular schizophrenic house wife
they dont think
704=god i dont know what the fuck happened but i think its coming in the future. i dont know how to stop it but i really dont fucking care.
i am luthern
i saved her life last night she would have fell in the snow and died
read the blog to find out what richard simmons did to them
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Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German reformer. Luther’s efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.
The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation.
The divide centered primarily on two points: the proper source of authority in the church, often called the formal principle of the Reformation, and the doctrine of justification, often called the material principle of Lutheran theology.[a] Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification “by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone“, the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition.
Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord’s Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God’s Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, and predestination.
- 3.2The Lutheran Confessions
- 3.5Two natures of Christ
- 3.9Divine providence
- 3.10Good works
- 3.11Judgment and eternal life
- 3.12Comparison among Protestants
- 5Throughout the world
- 6See also
- 9Further reading
- 10External links
Luther’s rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
The name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning “good news”, i.e. “Gospel“. The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition also used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed. As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists.
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Spread into northern Europe
Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway (also ruling Iceland and the Faroe Islands) and the monarch of Sweden (also ruling Finland) adopted Lutheranism. Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism also spread into Estonia and Latvia.
Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I (1523–33), Denmark–Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen.
During Frederick’s reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted; “We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore”. Frederick’s son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father’s death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway.
The constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was “The pure word of God, which is the Law and the Gospel“. It does not mention the Augsburg Confession. The priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther’s Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: “forgiving of their sins”, “to be counted as just”, and “the eternal life”. Instruction is still similar.
The first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther’s translation into German. It was published in 1550, with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition; a second edition was published in 1589. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the “Word of God”, or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the “Word of God”.
The Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led Gustav Vasa, elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism. The pope’s refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years later, at the Diet of Västerås [sv], the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this effectively granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsala Synod declared Holy Scripture the sole guideline for faith, with four documents accepted as faithful and authoritative explanations of it: the Apostles’ Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the unaltered Augsburg Confession of 1530. Mikael Agricola‘s translation of the first Finnish New Testament was published in 1548.
Counter-Reformation and controversies
After the death of Martin Luther in 1546, the Schmalkaldic War started out as a conflict between two German Lutheran rulers in 1547. Soon, Holy Roman Imperial forces joined the battle and conquered the members of the Schmalkaldic League, oppressing and exiling many German Lutherans as they enforced the terms of the Augsburg Interim. Religious freedom in some areas was secured for Lutherans through the Peace of Passau in 1552, and under the legal principle of Cuius regio, eius religio (the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled) and the Declaratio Ferdinandei (limited religious tolerance) clauses of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555.
A Hundskirche replica
Religious disputes between the Crypto-Calvinists, Philippists, Sacramentarians, Ubiquitarians and Gnesio-Lutherans raged within Lutheranism during the middle of the 16th century. This finally ended with the resolution of the issues in the Formula of Concord. Large numbers of politically and religiously influential leaders met together, debated, and resolved these topics on the basis of Scripture, resulting in the Formula, which over 8,000 leaders signed. The Book of Concord replaced earlier, incomplete collections of doctrine, unifying all German Lutherans with identical doctrine and beginning the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy.
In lands where Catholicism was the state religion, Lutheranism was officially illegal, although enforcement varied. Until the end of the Counter-Reformation, some Lutherans worshipped secretly, such as at the Hundskirke (which translates as dog church or dog altar). It is a triangle-shaped Communion rock in a ditch between crosses in Paternion, Austria. The crowned serpent is possibly an allusion to Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, while the dog possibly refers to Peter Canisius. Another figure interpreted as a snail carrying a church tower is possibly a metaphor for the Protestant church. Also on the rock is the number 1599 and a phrase translating as “thus gets in the world.”
Main article: Lutheran orthodoxy
The historical period of Lutheran Orthodoxy is divided into three sections: Early Orthodoxy (1580–1600), High Orthodoxy (1600–1685), and Late Orthodoxy (1685–1730). Lutheran scholasticism developed gradually especially for the purpose of arguing with the Jesuits, and it was finally established by Johann Gerhard. Abraham Calovius represents the climax of the scholastic paradigm in orthodox Lutheranism. Other orthodox Lutheran theologians include Martin Chemnitz, Aegidius Hunnius, Leonhard Hutter, Nicolaus Hunnius, Jesper Rasmussen Brochmand, Salomo Glassius, Johann Hülsemann, Johann Conrad Dannhauer, Johannes Andreas Quenstedt, Johann Friedrich König, and Johann Wilhelm Baier.
Near the end of the Thirty Years’ War, the compromising spirit seen in Philip Melanchthon rose up again in Helmstedt School and especially in theology of Georgius Calixtus, causing the syncretistic controversy. Another theological issue that arose was the Crypto-Kenotic controversy.
Late orthodoxy was torn by influences from rationalism, philosophy based on reason, and Pietism, a revival movement in Lutheranism. After a century of vitality, the Pietist theologians Philipp Jakob Spener and August Hermann Francke warned that orthodoxy had degenerated into meaningless intellectualism and formalism, while orthodox theologians found the emotional and subjective focuses of Pietism to be vulnerable to Rationalist propaganda. In 1688, the Finnish Radical Pietist Lars Ulstadius ran down the main aisle of Turku Cathedral naked while screaming that the disgrace of Finnish clergymen would be revealed, like his current disgrace.
The last famous orthodox Lutheran theologian before the rationalist Aufklärung, or Enlightenment, was David Hollatz. Late orthodox theologian Valentin Ernst Löscher took part in the controversy against Pietism. Medieval mystical traditions continued in the works of Martin Moller, Johann Arndt, and Joachim Lütkemann. Pietism became a rival of orthodoxy but adopted some devotional literature by orthodox theologians, including Arndt, Christian Scriver and Stephan Prätorius.
Rationalist philosophers from France and England had an enormous impact during the 18th century, along with the German Rationalists Christian Wolff, Gottfried Leibniz, and Immanuel Kant. Their work led to an increase in rationalist beliefs, “at the expense of faith in God and agreement with the Bible”.
In 1709, Valentin Ernst Löscher warned that this new Rationalist view of the world fundamentally changed society by drawing into question every aspect of theology. Instead of considering the authority of divine revelation, he explained, Rationalists relied solely on their personal understanding when searching for truth.
Johann Melchior Goeze (1717–1786), pastor of St. Catherine’s Church, Hamburg, wrote apologetical works against Rationalists, including a theological and historical defence against the historical criticism of the Bible.
Dissenting Lutheran pastors were often reprimanded by the government bureaucracy overseeing them, for example, when they tried to correct Rationalist influences in the parish school. As a result of the impact of a local form of rationalism, termed Neology, by the latter half of the 18th century, genuine piety was found almost solely in small Pietist conventicles. However, some of the laity preserved Lutheran orthodoxy from both Pietism and rationalism through reusing old catechisms, hymnbooks, postils, and devotional writings, including those written by Johann Gerhard, Heinrich Müller and Christian Scriver.
A layman, Luther scholar Johann Georg Hamann (1730–1788), became famous for countering Rationalism and striving to advance a revival known as the Erweckung, or Awakening. In 1806, Napoleon’s invasion of Germany promoted Rationalism and angered German Lutherans, stirring up a desire among the people to preserve Luther’s theology from the Rationalist threat. Those associated with this Awakening held that reason was insufficient and pointed out the importance of emotional religious experiences.
Small groups sprang up, often in universities, which devoted themselves to Bible study, reading devotional writings, and revival meetings. Although the beginning of this Awakening tended heavily toward Romanticism, patriotism, and experience, the emphasis of the Awakening shifted around 1830 to restoring the traditional liturgy, doctrine, and confessions of the Lutheran church in the Neo-Lutheran movement.
This Awakening swept through all of Scandinavia though not Iceland. It developed from both German Neo-Lutheranism and Pietism. Danish pastor and philosopher N. F. S. Grundtvig reshaped church life throughout Denmark through a reform movement beginning in 1830. He also wrote about 1,500 hymns, including God’s Word Is Our Great Heritage.
In Norway, Hans Nielsen Hauge, a lay street preacher, emphasized spiritual discipline and sparked the Haugean movement, which was followed by the Johnsonian Awakening within the state-church. The Awakening drove the growth of foreign missions in Norway to non-Christians to a new height, which has never been reached since. In Sweden, Lars Levi Læstadius began the Laestadian movement that emphasized moral reform. In Finland, a farmer, Paavo Ruotsalainen, began the Finnish Awakening when he took to preaching about repentance and prayer.
The Olbers, one of the ships that carried Old Lutherans to the Western Hemisphere.
In 1817, Frederick William III of Prussia ordered the Lutheran and Reformed churches in his territory to unite, forming the Prussian Union of Churches. The unification of the two branches of German Protestantism sparked the Schism of the Old Lutherans. Many Lutherans, called “Old Lutherans“, chose to leave the state churches despite imprisonment and military force. Some formed independent church bodies, or “free churches“, at home while others left for the United States, Canada and Australia. A similar legislated merger in Silesia prompted thousands to join the Old Lutheran movement. The dispute over ecumenism overshadowed other controversies within German Lutheranism.
Despite political meddling in church life, local and national leaders sought to restore and renew Christianity. Neo-Lutheran Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe and Old Lutheran free church leader Friedrich August Brünn both sent young men overseas to serve as pastors to German Americans, while the Inner Mission focused on renewing the situation home. Johann Gottfried Herder, superintendent at Weimar and part of the Inner Mission movement, joined with the Romantic movement with his quest to preserve human emotion and experience from Rationalism.
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg, though raised Reformed, became convinced of the truth of historic Lutheranism as a young man. He led the Neo-Lutheran Repristination School of theology, which advocated a return to the orthodox theologians of the 17th century and opposed modern Bible scholarship.[better source needed] As editor of the periodical Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, he developed it into a major support of Neo-Lutheran revival and used it to attack all forms of theological liberalism and rationalism. Although he received a large amount of slander and ridicule during his forty years at the head of revival, he never gave up his positions.
The theological faculty at the University of Erlangen in Bavaria became another force for reform. There, professor Adolf von Harless, though previously an adherent of rationalism and German idealism, made Erlangen a magnet for revival oriented theologians. Termed the Erlangen School of theology, they developed a new version of the Incarnation, which they felt emphasized the humanity of Jesus better than the ecumenical creeds. As theologians, they used both modern historical critical and Hegelian philosophical methods instead of attempting to revive the orthodoxy of the 17th century.
Friedrich Julius Stahl led the High Church Lutherans. Though raised a Jew, he was baptized as a Christian at the age of 19 through the influence of the Lutheran school he attended. As the leader of a neofeudal Prussian political party, he campaigned for the divine right of kings, the power of the nobility, and episcopal polity for the church. Along with Theodor Kliefoth and August Friedrich Christian Vilmar, he promoted agreement with the Roman Catholic Church with regard to the authority of the institutional church, ex opere operato effectiveness of the sacraments, and the divine authority of clergy. Unlike Catholics, however, they also urged complete agreement with the Book of Concord.
The Neo-Lutheran movement managed to slow secularism and counter atheistic Marxism, but it did not fully succeed in Europe. It partly succeeded in continuing the Pietist movement’s drive to right social wrongs and focus on individual conversion. The Neo-Lutheran call to renewal failed to achieve widespread popular acceptance because it both began and continued with a lofty, idealistic Romanticism that did not connect with an increasingly industrialized and secularized Europe. At best, the work of local leaders resulted in specific areas with vibrant spiritual renewal, but people in Lutheran areas overall continued to become increasingly distant from church life. Additionally, the revival movements were divided by philosophical traditions. The Repristination school and Old Lutherans tended towards Kantianism, while the Erlangen school promoted a conservative Hegelian perspective. By 1969, Manfried Kober complained that “unbelief is rampant” even within German Lutheran parishes.
Luther’s translation of the Bible, from 1534
Traditionally, Lutherans hold the Bible of the Old and New Testaments to be the only divinely inspired book, the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, and the only norm for Christian teaching. Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, authority, clarity, efficacy, and sufficiency.
The authority of the Scriptures has been challenged during the history of Lutheranism. Martin Luther taught that the Bible was the written Word of God, and the only reliable guide for faith and practice. He held that every passage of Scripture has one straightforward meaning, the literal sense as interpreted by other Scripture. These teachings were accepted during the orthodox Lutheranism of the 17th century. During the 18th century, Rationalism advocated reason rather than the authority of the Bible as the final source of knowledge, but most of the laity did not accept this Rationalist position. In the 19th century, a confessional revival re-emphasized the authority of the Bible and agreement with the Lutheran Confessions.
Today, Lutherans disagree about the inspiration and authority of the Bible. Theological conservatives use the historical-grammatical method of Biblical interpretation, while theological liberals use the higher critical method. The 2008 U.S. Religious Landscape Survey conducted by the Pew Research Center surveyed 1,926 adults in the United States that self-identified as Lutheran. The study found that 30% believed that the Bible was the Word of God and was to be taken literally word for word. 40% held that the Bible was the Word of God, but was not literally true word for word or were unsure if it was literally true word for word. 23% said the Bible was written by men and not the Word of God. 7% did not know, were not sure, or had other positions.
Although many Lutherans today hold less specific views of inspiration, historically, Lutherans affirm that the Bible does not merely contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of plenary, verbal inspiration, the direct, immediate word of God. The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies Holy Scripture with the Word of God and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible. Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, “we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel.” The apocryphal books were not written by the prophets nor by inspiration; they contain errors and were never included in the Judean Canon that Jesus used; therefore they are not a part of Holy Scripture. The prophetic and apostolic Scriptures are authentic as written by the prophets and apostles. A correct translation of their writings is God’s Word because it has the same meaning as the original Hebrew and Greek. A mistranslation is not God’s word, and no human authority can invest it with divine authority.
Historically, Lutherans understand the Bible to present all doctrines and commands of the Christian faith clearly. In addition, Lutherans believe that God’s Word is freely accessible to every reader or hearer of ordinary intelligence, without requiring any special education. A Lutheran must understand the language that scriptures are presented in, and should not be so preoccupied by error so as to prevent understanding. As a result of this, Lutherans do not believe there is a need to wait for any clergy, pope, scholar, or ecumenical council to explain the real meaning of any part of the Bible.
Lutherans confess that Scripture is united with the power of the Holy Spirit and with it, not only demands, but also creates the acceptance of its teaching. This teaching produces faith and obedience. Holy Scripture is not a dead letter, but rather, the power of the Holy Spirit is inherent in it. Scripture does not compel a mere intellectual assent to its doctrine, resting on logical argumentation, but rather it creates the living agreement of faith. As the Smalcald Articles affirm, “in those things which concern the spoken, outward Word, we must firmly hold that God grants His Spirit or grace to no one, except through or with the preceding outward Word.”
Law and Grace, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. The left side shows humans’ condemnation under God’s law, while the right side presents God’s grace in Christ.
Lutherans are confident that the Bible contains everything that one needs to know in order to obtain salvation and to live a Christian life. There are no deficiencies in Scripture that need to be filled with by tradition, pronouncements of the Pope, new revelations, or present-day development of doctrine.
Law and Gospel
Lutherans understand the Bible as containing two distinct types of content, termed Law and Gospel (or Law and Promises). Properly distinguishing between Law and Gospel prevents the obscuring of the Gospel teaching of justification by grace through faith alone.
The Lutheran Confessions
The Book of Concord, published in 1580, contains ten documents which some Lutherans believe are faithful and authoritative explanations of Holy Scripture. Besides the three Ecumenical Creeds, which date to Roman times, the Book of Concord contains seven credal documents articulating Lutheran theology in the Reformation era.
The doctrinal positions of Lutheran churches are not uniform because the Book of Concord does not hold the same position in all Lutheran churches. For example, the state churches in Scandinavia consider only the Augsburg Confession as a “summary of the faith” in addition to the three ecumenical Creeds. Lutheran pastors, congregations, and church bodies in Germany and the Americas usually agree to teach in harmony with the entire Lutheran Confessions. Some Lutheran church bodies require this pledge to be unconditional because they believe the confessions correctly state what the Bible teaches. Others allow their congregations to do so “insofar as” the Confessions are in agreement with the Bible.
In addition, Lutherans accept the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the Christian Church. The Augsburg Confession teaches that “the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church”. When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, they explained “that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils.”
Lutherans believe that whoever has faith in Jesus alone will receive salvation from the grace of God and will enter eternity in heaven instead of eternity in hell after death or at the second coming of Jesus.
The key doctrine, or material principle, of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification. Lutherans believe that humans are saved from their sins by God’s grace alone (Sola Gratia), through faith alone (Sola Fide), on the basis of Scripture alone (Sola Scriptura). Orthodox Lutheran theology holds that God made the world, including humanity, perfect, holy and sinless. However, Adam and Eve chose to disobey God, trusting in their own strength, knowledge, and wisdom. Consequently, people are saddled with original sin, born sinful and unable to avoid committing sinful acts. For Lutherans, original sin is the “chief sin, a root and fountainhead of all actual sins.”
Lutherans teach that sinners, while capable of doing works that are outwardly “good”, are not capable of doing works that satisfy God’s justice. Every human thought and deed is infected with sin and sinful motives. Because of this, all humanity deserves eternal damnation in hell. God in eternity has turned His Fatherly heart to this world and planned for its redemption because he loves all people and does not want anyone to be eternally damned.
To this end, “God sent his Son Jesus Christ, our Lord, into the world to redeem and deliver us from the power of the devil, and to bring us to Himself, and to govern us as a King of righteousness, life, and salvation against sin, death, and an evil conscience,” as Luther’s Large Catechism explains. Because of this, Lutherans teach that salvation is possible only because of the grace of God made manifest in the birth, life, suffering, death, and resurrection, and continuing presence by the power of the Holy Spirit, of Jesus Christ. By God’s grace, made known and effective in the person and work of Jesus Christ, a person is forgiven, adopted as a child and heir of God, and given eternal salvation. Christ, because he was entirely obedient to the law with respect to both his human and divine natures, “is a perfect satisfaction and reconciliation of the human race,” as the Formula of Concord asserts, and proceeds to summarize:
[Christ] submitted to the law for us, bore our sin, and in going to his Father performed complete and perfect obedience for us poor sinners, from his holy birth to his death. Thereby he covered all our disobedience, which is embedded in our nature and in its thoughts, words, and deeds, so that this disobedience is not reckoned to us as condemnation but is pardoned and forgiven by sheer grace, because of Christ alone.
Lutherans believe that individuals receive this gift of salvation through faith alone. Saving faith is the knowledge of, acceptance of, and trust in the promise of the Gospel. Even faith itself is seen as a gift of God, created in the hearts of Christians by the work of the Holy Spirit through the Word and Baptism. Faith receives the gift of salvation rather than causes salvation. Thus, Lutherans reject the “decision theology” which is common among modern evangelicals.
Since the term grace has been defined differently by other Christian church bodies (e.g. Roman Catholicism) it is important to note that Lutheranism defines grace as entirely limited to God’s gifts to us. Justification comes as a pure gift, not something we merit by changed behavior or in which we cooperate. Grace is not about our response to God’s gifts, but only His gifts.
Lutherans believe in the Trinity
Lutherans are Trinitarian. Lutherans reject the idea that the Father and God the Son are merely faces of the same person, stating that both the Old Testament and the New Testament show them to be two distinct persons. Lutherans believe the Holy Spirit proceeds from both the Father and the Son. In the words of the Athanasian Creed: “We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Substance. For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one: the glory equal, the majesty coeternal.”
Two natures of Christ
Main article: Scholastic Lutheran Christology
Lutherans believe Jesus is the Christ, the savior promised in the Old Testament. They believe he is both by nature God and by nature man in one person, as they confess in Luther’s Small Catechism that he is “true God begotten of the Father from eternity and also true man born of the Virgin Mary”.
[T]he Son of God, did assume the human nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, so that there are two natures, the divine and the human, inseparably enjoined in one Person, one Christ, true God and true man, who was born of the Virgin Mary, truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, that He might reconcile the Father unto us, and be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men.
Main article: Lutheran sacraments
A.C. Article IX: Of Confession
Lutherans hold that sacraments are sacred acts of divine institution. Whenever they are properly administered by the use of the physical component commanded by God along with the divine words of institution, God is, in a way specific to each sacrament, present with the Word and physical component. He earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament forgiveness of sins and eternal salvation. He also works in the recipients to get them to accept these blessings and to increase the assurance of their possession.
Lutherans are not dogmatic about the number of the sacraments. In line with Luther’s initial statement in his Large Catechism some speak of only two sacraments, Baptism and Holy Communion, although later in the same work he calls Confession and Absolution “the third sacrament.” The definition of sacrament in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession lists Absolution as one of them. With the exception of Laestadian Lutherans, Private Confession is not practiced among Lutherans as often as in the Catholic Church. Rather, it is expected before receiving the Eucharist for the first time. Some churches also allow for individual absolution on Saturdays before the Eucharistic service. A general confession and absolution (known as the Penitential Rite) is proclaimed in the Eucharistic liturgy.
Lutherans practice infant baptism
Lutherans hold that Baptism is a saving work of God, mandated and instituted by Jesus Christ. Baptism is a “means of grace” through which God creates and strengthens “saving faith” as the “washing of regeneration” in which infants and adults are reborn. Since the creation of faith is exclusively God’s work, it does not depend on the actions of the one baptized, whether infant or adult. Even though baptized infants cannot articulate that faith, Lutherans believe that it is present all the same.
It is faith alone that receives these divine gifts, so Lutherans confess that baptism “works forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe this, as the words and promises of God declare.” Lutherans hold fast to the Scripture cited in 1 Peter 3:21, “Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.” Therefore, Lutherans administer Baptism to both infants and adults. In the special section on infant baptism in his Large Catechism, Luther argues that infant baptism is God-pleasing because persons so baptized were reborn and sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
Main article: Eucharist in the Lutheran Church
Luther communing John the Steadfast
Lutherans hold that within the Eucharist, also referred to as the Sacrament of the Altar, the Mass, or the Lord’s Supper, the true body and blood of Christ are truly present “in, with, and under the forms” of the consecrated bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it, a doctrine that the Formula of Concord calls the sacramental union.
Main article: Confession (Lutheran Church)
Many Lutherans receive the sacrament of penance before receiving the Eucharist. Prior to going to Confessing and receiving Absolution, the faithful are expected to examine their lives in light of the Ten Commandments. An order of Confession and Absolution is contained in the Small Catechism, as well as in liturgical books. Lutherans typically kneel at the communion rails to confess their sins, while the confessor listens and then offers absolution while laying their stole on the penitent’s head. Clergy are prohibited from revealing anything said during private Confession and Absolution per the Seal of the Confessional, and face excommunication if it is violated. Apart from this, Laestadian Lutherans have a practice of lay confession.
In Lutheranism, conversion or regeneration in the strict sense of the term is the work of divine grace and power by which man, born of the flesh, and void of all power to think, to will, or to do any good thing, and dead in sin is, through the gospel and holy baptism, taken from a state of sin and spiritual death under God’s wrath into a state of spiritual life of faith and grace, rendered able to will and to do what is spiritually good and, especially, made to trust in the benefits of the redemption which is in Christ Jesus.
During conversion, one is moved from impenitence to repentance. The Augsburg Confession divides repentance into two parts: “One is contrition, that is, terrors smiting the conscience through the knowledge of sin; the other is faith, which is born of the Gospel, or of absolution, and believes that for Christ’s sake, sins are forgiven, comforts the conscience, and delivers it from terrors.”
Lutherans adhere to divine monergism, the teaching that salvation is by God’s act alone, and therefore reject the idea that humans in their fallen state have a free will concerning spiritual matters. Lutherans believe that although humans have free will concerning civil righteousness, they cannot work spiritual righteousness in the heart without the presence and aid of the Holy Spirit. Lutherans believe Christians are “saved”; that all who trust in Christ alone and his promises can be certain of their salvation.
According to Lutheranism, the central final hope of the Christian is “the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting” as confessed in the Apostles’ Creed rather than predestination. Lutherans disagree with those who make predestination—rather than Christ’s suffering, death, and resurrection—the source of salvation. Unlike some Calvinists, Lutherans do not believe in a predestination to damnation, usually referencing “God our Savior, who desires all people to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth” as contrary evidence to such a claim. Instead, Lutherans teach eternal damnation is a result of the unbeliever’s sins, rejection of the forgiveness of sins, and unbelief.
According to Lutherans, God preserves his creation, cooperates with everything that happens, and guides the universe. While God cooperates with both good and evil deeds, with evil deeds he does so only inasmuch as they are deeds, but not with the evil in them. God concurs with an act’s effect, but he does not cooperate in the corruption of an act or the evil of its effect. Lutherans believe everything exists for the sake of the Christian Church, and that God guides everything for its welfare and growth.
The explanation of the Apostles’ Creed given in the Small Catechism declares that everything good that people have is given and preserved by God, either directly or through other people or things. Of the services others provide us through family, government, and work, “we receive these blessings not from them, but, through them, from God.” Since God uses everyone’s useful tasks for good, people should not look down upon some useful vocations as being less worthy than others. Instead people should honor others, no matter how lowly, as being the means God uses to work in the world.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866
Lutherans believe that good works are the fruit of faith, always and in every instance. Good works have their origin in God, not in the fallen human heart or in human striving; their absence would demonstrate that faith, too, is absent. Lutherans do not believe that good works are a factor in obtaining salvation; they believe that we are saved by the grace of God—based on the merit of Christ in his suffering and death—and faith in the Triune God. Good works are the natural result of faith, not the cause of salvation. Although Christians are no longer compelled to keep God’s law, they freely and willingly serve God and their neighbors.
“Even though I am a sinner and deserving of death and hell, this shall nonetheless be my consolation and my victory that my Lord Jesus lives and has risen so that He, in the end, might rescue me from sin, death, and hell.”—Luther
Judgment and eternal life
Lutherans do not believe in any sort of earthly millennial kingdom of Christ either before or after his second coming on the last day. Lutherans teach that, at death, the souls of Christians are immediately taken into the presence of Jesus, where they await the second coming of Jesus on the last day. On the last day, all the bodies of the dead will be resurrected.
Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying. The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment, those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory. After the resurrection of all the dead, and the change of those still living, all nations shall be gathered before Christ, and he will separate the righteous from the wicked.
Christ will publicly judge all people by the testimony of their deeds, the good works of the righteous in evidence of their faith, and the evil works of the wicked in evidence of their unbelief. He will judge in righteousness in the presence of all people and angels, and his final judgment will be just damnation to everlasting punishment for the wicked and a gracious gift of life everlasting to the righteous.
Comparison among Protestants
Luther composed hymns and hymn tunes, including “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (“A Mighty Fortress Is Our God“)
Lutherans place great emphasis on a liturgical approach to worship services; although there are substantial non-liturgical minorities, for example, the Haugean Lutherans from Norway. Martin Luther was a great fan of music, and this is why it forms a large part of Lutheran services; in particular, Luther admired the composers Josquin des Prez and Ludwig Senfl and wanted singing in the church to move away from the ars perfecta (Catholic Sacred Music of the late Renaissance) and towards singing as a Gemeinschaft (community). Lutheran hymns are sometimes known as chorales. Lutheran hymnody is well known for its doctrinal, didactic, and musical richness. Most Lutheran churches are active musically with choirs, handbell choirs, children’s choirs, and occasionally change ringing groups that ring bells in a bell tower. Johann Sebastian Bach, a devout Lutheran, composed music for the Lutheran church.
Lutherans also preserve a liturgical approach to the celebration of the Mass (or the Holy Eucharist/Communion), emphasizing the sacrament as the central act of Christian worship. Lutherans believe that the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ are present in, with and under the bread and the wine. This belief is called Real Presence or sacramental union and is different from consubstantiation and transubstantiation. Additionally Lutherans reject the idea that communion is a mere symbol or memorial. They confess in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession:
[W]e do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it. Among us the Mass is celebrated every Lord’s Day and on other festivals, when the Sacrament is made available to those who wish to partake of it, after they have been examined and absolved. We also keep traditional liturgical forms, such as the order of readings, prayers, vestments, and other similar things.
Besides the Holy Communion (Divine Service), congregations also hold offices, which are worship services without communion. They may include Matins, Vespers, Compline, and Easter Vigil. Private or family offices include the Morning and Evening Prayers from Luther’s Small Catechism. Meals are blessed with the Common table prayer, Psalm 145:15–16, or other prayers, and after eating the Lord is thanked, for example, with Psalm 136:1. Luther himself encouraged the use of Psalm verses, such as those already mentioned, along with the Lord’s Prayer and another short prayer before and after each meal: Blessing and Thanks at Meals from Luther’s Small Catechism. In addition, Lutherans use devotional books, from small daily devotionals, for example, Portals of Prayer, to large breviaries, including the Breviarium Lipsiensae and Treasury of Daily Prayer.
The predominant rite used by the Lutheran Churches is a Western one based on the Formula missae (“Form of the Mass”) although other Lutheran liturgies are also in use, such as those used in the Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches, such as the Ukrainian Lutheran Church and Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Slovenia. Although Luther’s Deutsche Messe was completely chanted except for the sermon, this is usually not the case today.
In the 1970s, many Lutheran churches began holding contemporary worship services for the purpose of evangelistic outreach. These services were in a variety of styles, depending on the preferences of the congregation. Often they were held alongside a traditional service in order to cater to those who preferred contemporary worship music. Today, few but some Lutheran congregations have contemporary worship as their sole form of worship. Outreach is no longer given as the primary motivation; rather this form of worship is seen as more in keeping with the desires of individual congregations. In Finland, Lutherans have experimented with the St Thomas Mass [fi] and Metal Mass in which traditional hymns are adapted to heavy metal. Some Laestadians enter a heavily emotional and ecstatic state during worship. The Lutheran World Federation, in its Nairobi Statement on Worship and Culture, recommended every effort be made to bring church services into a more sensitive position with regard to cultural context.
In 2006, both the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), in cooperation with certain foreign English speaking church bodies within their respective fellowships, released new hymnals: Evangelical Lutheran Worship (ELCA) and Lutheran Service Book (LCMS). Along with these, the most widely used among English speaking congregations include: Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary (1996, Evangelical Lutheran Synod), The Lutheran Book of Worship (1978, Lutheran Council in the United States of America), Lutheran Worship (1982, LCMS), Christian Worship (1993, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod), and The Lutheran Hymnal (1941, Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America). In the Lutheran Church of Australia, the official hymnal is the Lutheran Hymnal with Supplement of 1986, which includes a supplement to the Lutheran Hymnal of 1973, itself a replacement for the Australian Lutheran Hymn Book of 1921. Prior to this time, the two Lutheran church bodies in Australia (which merged in 1966) used a bewildering variety of hymnals, usually in the German language. Spanish-speaking ELCA churches frequently use Libro de Liturgia y Cántico (1998, Augsburg Fortress) for services and hymns. For a more complete list, see List of English language Lutheran hymnals.
Sizable Lutheran missions arose for the first time during the 19th century. Early missionary attempts during the century after the Reformation did not succeed. However, European traders brought Lutheranism to Africa beginning in the 17th century as they settled along the coasts. During the first half of the 19th century, missionary activity in Africa expanded, including preaching by missionaries, translation of the Bible, and education.
Lutheranism came to India beginning with the work of Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg, where a community totaling several thousand developed, complete with their own translation of the Bible, catechism, their own hymnal, and system of Lutheran schools. In the 1840s, this church experienced a revival through the work of the Leipzig Mission, including Karl Graul. After German missionaries were expelled in 1914, Lutherans in India became entirely autonomous, yet preserved their Lutheran character. In recent years India has relaxed its anti-religious conversion laws, allowing a resurgence in missionary work.
In Latin America, missions began to serve European immigrants of Lutheran background, both those who spoke German and those who no longer did. These churches in turn began to evangelize those in their areas who were not of European background, including indigenous peoples.
In 1892, the first Lutheran missionaries reached Japan. Although work began slowly and a major setback occurred during the hardships of WWII. Lutheranism there has survived and become self-sustaining. After missionaries to China, including those of the Lutheran Church of China, were expelled, they began ministry in Taiwan and Hong Kong, the latter which became a center of Lutheranism in Asia.
The Lutheran Mission in New Guinea, though founded only in 1953, became the largest Lutheran mission in the world in only several decades. Through the work of native lay evangelists, many tribes of diverse languages were reached with the Gospel.
Today the Lutheran World Federation operates Lutheran World Relief, a relief and development agency active in more than 50 countries.
Resurrection Lutheran School is a parochial school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) in Rochester, MN. The WELS school system is the fourth largest private school system in the United States.
Catechism instruction is considered foundational in most Lutheran churches. Almost all maintain Sunday Schools, and some host or maintain Lutheran schools, at the preschool, elementary, middle, high school, folk high school, or university level. Lifelong study of the catechism is intended for all ages so that the abuses of the pre-Reformation Church will not recur. Lutheran schools have always been a core aspect of Lutheran mission work, starting with Bartholomew Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Putschasu, who began work in India in year 1706. During the Counter-Reformation era in German speaking areas, backstreet Lutheran schools were the main Lutheran institution among crypto-Lutherans.
Pastors almost always have substantial theological educations, including Koine Greek and Biblical Hebrew so that they can refer to the Christian scriptures in the original language. Pastors usually teach in the common language of the local congregation. In the U.S., some congregations and synods historically taught in German, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, or Swedish, but retention of immigrant languages has been in significant decline since the early and middle 20th century.
Lutherans were divided about the issue of church fellowship for the first thirty years after Luther’s death. Philipp Melanchthon and his Philippist party felt that Christians of different beliefs should join in union with each other without completely agreeing on doctrine. Against them stood the Gnesio-Lutherans, led by Matthias Flacius and the faculty at the University of Jena. They condemned the Philippist position for indifferentism, describing it as a “unionistic compromise” of precious Reformation theology. Instead, they held that genuine unity between Christians and real theological peace was only possible with an honest agreement about every subject of doctrinal controversy.
Complete agreement finally came about in 1577, after the death of both Melanchthon and Flacius, when a new generation of theologians resolved the doctrinal controversies on the basis of Scripture in the Formula of Concord of 1577. Although they decried the visible division of Christians on earth, orthodox Lutherans avoided ecumenical fellowship with other churches, believing that Christians should not, for example, join together for the Lord’s Supper or exchange pastors if they do not completely agree about what the Bible teaches. In the 17th century, Georgius Calixtus began a rebellion against this practice, sparking the Syncretistic Controversy with Abraham Calovius as his main opponent.
In the 18th century, there was some ecumenical interest between the Church of Sweden and the Church of England. John Robinson, Bishop of London, planned for a union of the English and Swedish churches in 1718. The plan failed because most Swedish bishops rejected the Calvinism of the Church of England, although Jesper Swedberg and Johannes Gezelius the younger, bishops of Skara, Sweden and Turku, Finland, were in favor. With the encouragement of Swedberg, church fellowship was established between Swedish Lutherans and Anglicans in the Middle Colonies. Over the course of the 1700s and the early 1800s, Swedish Lutherans were absorbed into Anglican churches, with the last original Swedish congregation completing merger into the Episcopal Church in 1846.
In the 19th century, Samuel Simon Schmucker attempted to lead the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States toward unification with other American Protestants. His attempt to get the synod to reject the Augsburg Confession in favor of his compromising Definite Platform failed. Instead, it sparked a Neo-Lutheran revival, prompting many to form the General Council, including Charles Porterfield Krauth. Their alternative approach was “Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran ministers only and Lutheran altars…for Lutheran communicants only.”
Stormtroopers holding German Christian propaganda during the church council elections on 23 July 1933 at St. Mary’s Church, Berlin. After that, internal struggles, controversies, reorganization, and splits struck the German Evangelical Church
Beginning in 1867, confessional and liberal minded Lutherans in Germany joined together to form the Common Evangelical Lutheran Conference against the ever looming prospect of a state-mandated union with the Reformed. However, they failed to reach consensus on the degree of shared doctrine necessary for church union. Eventually, the fascist German Christians movement pushed the final national merger of Lutheran, Union, and Reformed church bodies into a single Reich Church in 1933, doing away with the previous umbrella German Evangelical Church Confederation (DEK). As part of denazification the Reich Church was formally done away with in 1945, and certain clergy were removed from their positions. However, the merger between the Lutheran, United, and Reformed state churches was retained under the name Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). In 1948 the Lutheran church bodies within the EKD founded the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany (VELKD), but it has since been reduced from being an independent legal entity to an administrative unit within the EKD.
Presently, Lutherans are divided over how to interact with other Christian denominations. Some Lutherans assert that everyone must share the “whole counsel of God” (Acts 20:27) in complete unity (1 Cor. 1:10) before pastors can share each other’s pulpits, and before communicants commune at each other’s altars, a practice termed closed (or close) communion. On the other hand, other Lutherans practice varying degrees of open communion and allow preachers from other Christian denominations in their pulpits.
While not an issue in the majority of Lutheran church bodies, some of them forbid membership in Freemasonry. Partly, this is because the lodge is viewed as spreading Unitarianism, as the Brief Statement of the LCMS reads, “Hence we warn against Unitarianism, which in our country has to a great extent impenetrated the sects and is being spread particularly also through the influence of the lodges.” A 1958 report from the publishing house of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod states that, “Masonry is guilty of idolatry. Its worship and prayers are idol worship. The Masons may not with their hands have made an idol out of gold, silver, wood or stone, but they created one with their own mind and reason out of purely human thoughts and ideas. The latter is an idol no less than the former.”
LCMS pastor wearing a chasuble during communion
The largest organizations of Lutheran churches around the world are the Lutheran World Federation (LWF), the Global Confessional and Missional Lutheran Forum, the International Lutheran Council (ILC), and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference (CELC). These organizations together account for the great majority of Lutheran denominations. The LCMS and the Lutheran Church–Canada are members of the ILC. The WELS and ELS are members of the CELC. Many Lutheran churches are not affiliated with the LWF, the ILC or the CELC: The congregations of the Church of the Lutheran Confession (CLC) are affiliated with their mission organizations in Canada, India, Nepal, Myanmar, and many African nations; and those affiliated with the Church of the Lutheran Brethren are especially active doing mission work in Africa and East Asia.
The Lutheran World Federation-aligned churches do not believe that one church is singularly true in its teachings. According to this belief, Lutheranism is a reform movement rather than a movement into doctrinal correctness. As part of this, in 1999 the LWF and the Roman Catholic Church jointly issued a statement, the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, that stated that the LWF and the Catholics both agreed about certain basics of Justification and lifted certain Catholic anathemas formerly applying to the LWF member churches.The LCMS has participated in most of the official dialogues with the Roman Catholic Church since shortly after the Second Vatican Council, though not the one which produced the Joint Declaration and to which they were not invited. While some Lutheran theologians saw the Joint Declaration as a sign that the Catholics were essentially adopting the Lutheran position, other Lutheran theologians disagreed, claiming that, considering the public documentation of the Catholic position, this assertion does not hold up.
Confirmation in Lunder Church, Ringerike, Norway, 2012. The Church of Norway is a member of the Porvoo Communion, which means that these confirmands would be readily transferred into any Anglican church should they ever emigrate.
Besides their intra-Lutheran arrangements, some member churches of the LWF have also declared full communion with non-Lutheran Protestant churches. The Porvoo Communion is a communion of episcopally led Lutheran and Anglican churches in Europe. Beside its membership in the Porvoo Communion, Church of Sweden also has declared full communion with the Philippine Independent Church and the United Methodist Church. The state Protestant churches in Germany many other European countries have signed the Leuenberg Agreement to form the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America has been involved in ecumenical dialogues with several denominations. The ELCA has declared full communion with multiple American Protestant churches.
Although on paper the LWF churches have all declared have full communion with each other, in practice some churches within the LWF have renounced ties with specific other churches. One development in this ongoing schism is the Global Confessional and Missional Lutheran Forum, which consists of churches and church related organizations tracing their heritage back to mainline American Lutheranism in North America, European state churches, as well as certain African churches. As of 2019, the Forum is not a full communion organization. Similar in this structure is the International Lutheran Council, where issues of communion are left to the individual denominations. Not all ILC churches have declared church-fellowship with each other. In contrast, mutual church-fellowship is part of the CELC member churches, and unlike in the LWF, this is not contradicted by individual statements from any particular member church body.
Læstadian lay preacher from Finnmark, Norway, 1898
Laestadians within certain European state churches maintain close ties to other Laestadians, often called Apostolic Lutherans. Altogether, Laestadians are found in 23 countries across five continents, but there is no single organization which represents them. Laestadians operate Peace Associations to coordinate their churchly efforts. Nearly all are located in Europe, although they there are 15 combined in North America, Ecuador, Togo, and Kenya.
By contrast, the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference and International Lutheran Council as well as some unaffiliated denominations such as the Church of the Lutheran Confession and North American Laestadians maintain that the orthodox confessional Lutheran churches are the only churches with completely correct doctrine. They teach that while other Christian churches teach partially orthodox doctrine and have true Christians as members, the doctrines of those churches contain significant errors. More conservative Lutherans strive to maintain historical distinctiveness while emphasizing doctrinal purity alongside Gospel-motivated outreach. They claim that LWF Lutherans are practicing “fake ecumenism” by desiring church fellowship outside of actual unity of teaching.
Although not an “ecumenical” movement in the formal sense, in the 1990s influences from the megachurches of American evangelicalism have become somewhat common. Many of the largest Lutheran congregations in the United States have been heavily influenced by these “progressive Evangelicals.” These influences are sharply criticized by some Lutherans as being foreign to orthodox Lutheran beliefs.
Hallowed be Thy Name by Lucas Cranach the Elder illustrates a Lutheran pastor preaching Christ crucified. During the Reformation and afterwards, many churches did not have pews, so people would stand or sit on the floor. The elderly might be given a chair or stool.
Lutheran polity varies depending on influences. Although Article XIV of the Augsburg Confession mandates that one must be “properly called” to preach or administer the Sacraments, some Lutherans have a broad view of on what constitutes this and thus allow lay preaching or students still studying to be pastors someday to consecrate the Lord’s Supper. Despite considerable diversity, Lutheran polity trends in a geographically predictable manner in Europe, with episcopal governance to the north and east but blended and consistorial-presbyterian type synodical governance in Germany.
Nathan Söderblom is ordained as archbishop of the Church of Sweden, 1914. Although the Swedish Lutherans can boast of an unbroken line of ordinations going back prior to the Reformation, the bishops of Rome today do not recognize such ordinations as a valid due to the fact they occurred without authorization from the Roman See.
To the north in Scandinavia, the population was more insulated from the influence and politics of the Reformation and thus the Church of Sweden (which at the time included Finland) retained the Apostolic succession, although they did not consider it essential for valid sacraments as the Donatists did in the fourth and fifth centuries and the Roman Catholics do today. Recently, the Swedish succession was introduced into all of the Porvoo Communion churches, all of which have an episcopal polity. Although the Lutheran churches did not require this or change their doctrine, this was important in order for more strictly high church Anglican individuals to feel comfortable recognizing their sacraments as valid. The occasional ordination of a bishop by a priest was not necessarily considered an invalid ordination in the Middle Ages, so the alleged break in the line of succession in the other Nordic Churches would have been considered a violation of canon law rather than an invalid ordination at the time. Moreover, there are no consistent records detailing pre-Reformation ordinations prior to the 12th century.
In the far north of the Scandinavian peninsula are the Sámi people, some of which practice a form of Lutheranism called Apostolic Lutheranism, or Laestadianism due to the efforts of Lars Levi Laestadius. However, others are Orthodox in religion. Some Apostolic Lutherans consider their movement as part of an unbroken line down from the Apostles. In areas where Apostolic Lutherans have their own bishops apart from other Lutheran church organizations, the bishops wield more practical authority than Lutheran clergy typically do. In Russia, Laestadians of Lutheran background cooperate with the Ingrian church, but since Laestadianism is an interdenominational movement, some are Eastern Orthodox. Eastern Orthodox Laestadians are known as Ushkovayzet (article is in Russian).
Eastern Europe and Asian Russia
Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in St. Petersburg
Although historically Pietism had a significant influence on the understanding of the ministry among Lutherans in the Russian Empire,[b] today nearly all Russian and Ukrainian Lutherans are influenced by Eastern Orthodox polity. In their culture, giving a high degree of respect and authority to their bishops is necessary for their faith to be seen as legitimate and not sectarian. In Russia, lines of succession between bishops and the canonical authority between their present-day hierarchy is also carefully maintained in order to legitimize the existing Lutheran churches as present day successors of the former Lutheran Church of the Russian Empire originally authorized by Catherine the Great. This allows for the post-Soviet repatriation of Lutheran church buildings to local congregations on the basis of this historical connection.
In Germany, several dynamics encouraged Lutherans to maintain a different form of polity. First, due to de facto practice during the Nuremberg Religious Peace the subsequent legal principal of Cuius regio, eius religio in the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, German states were officially either Catholic or “Evangelical” (that is, Lutheran under the Augsburg Confession). In some areas both Catholic and Lutheran churches were permitted to co-exist. Because German speaking Catholic areas were nearby Catholic leaning Christians were able to emigrate and there was less of an issue with Catholics choosing to live as crypto-papists in Lutheran areas. Although Reformed leaning Christians were not allowed to have churches, Melancthon wrote Augsburg Confession Variata which some used to claim legal protection as “Evangelical” churches. Many chose to live as crypto-Calvinists either with or without the protection offered by the Variata, but this did not make their influence go away, and as a result the Protestant church in Germany as of 2017 was only about ~40% Lutheran, with most of the rest being United Protestant, a combination of Lutheran and Reformed beliefs and practices.
Schwäbisch Hall Church Order, 1543
In terms of polity, over 17th and 18th centuries the carefully negotiated and highly prescriptive church orders of the Reformation era gave way to a joint cooperation between state control and a Reformed-style blend of consistorial and presbyterian type synodical governance. Just as negotiations over the details in the church orders involved the laity, so did the new synodical governance. Synodical governance had already been practiced in the Reformed Netherlands prior to its adoption by Lutherans. During the formation of the modern German state, ideas about the nature of authority and the best design for governments and organizations came from the philosophies Kant and Hegel, further modifying the polity. When the monarchy and the sovereign governance of the church was ended in 1918, the synods took over the governance of the state churches.
Western Hemisphere and Australia
The Pennsylvania Ministerium published this 1803 hymnal.
During the period of the emigration, Lutherans took their existing ideas about polity with them across the ocean, though with the exception of the early Swedish Lutherans immigrants of the New Sweden colony who accepted the rule of the Anglican bishops and became part of the established church, they now had to fund churches on their own. This increased the congregationalist dynamic in the blended consistorial and presbyterian type synodical governance. The first organized church body of Lutherans in America was the Pennsylvania Ministerium, which used Reformed style synodical governance over the 18th and 19th centuries. Their contribution to the development of polity was that smaller synods could in turn form a larger body, also with synodical governance, but without losing their lower level of governance. As a result, the smaller synods gained unprecedented flexibility to join, leave, merge, or stay separate, all without the hand of the state as had been the case in Europe.
During their 19th century persecution, Old Lutheran believers were left in a bind. Resistance to authority was disobedient, but upholding the true doctrine and right practice was also disobedient. Fortunately the doctrine of the lesser magistrate could be employed, whereby clergy could legitimately resist the state and even leave. illegal free churches were set up in Germany and mass emigration occurred. For decades the new churches were mostly dependent on the free churches to send them new ministerial candidates for ordination. These new church bodies also employed synodical governance, but tended to exclude Hegelianism in their constitutions due to its incompatibility with the doctrine of the lesser magistrates. In contrast to Hegelianism where authority flows in from all levels, Kantianism presents authority flowing only from the top down, hence the need for a lesser magistrate to become the new top magistrate.
Lighthouse Lutheran Church, an LCMC congregation in Freedom, Pennsylvania
Over the 20th and 20th century, some Lutheran bodies have adopted a more congregationalist approach, such as the Protest’ant Conference and the Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ, or LCMC. The LCMC formed due to a church split after the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America signed an agreement with the Episcopalians to start ordaining all of their new bishops into the Episcopalian Apostolic succession. In other words, this meant that new ELCA bishops, at least at first, would be jointly ordained by Anglican bishops as well as Lutheran bishops so that the more strict Episcopalians would recognize their sacraments as valid. This was offensive to some in the ELCA at the time because of the implications this had on the priesthood of all believers and the nature of ordination.
Today, some churches allow dual-rostering. Situations like this one where a church or church body belongs to multiple larger organizations that do not have ties are termed “triangular fellowship.” Another variant are independent Lutheran churches, although for some independent churches the clergy are members of a larger denomination. In other cases, a congregation may belong to a synod, but the pastor may be unaffiliated. In the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Wisconsin Synod, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod, the Church of the Lutheran Confession, and the Missouri Synod, teachers at parochial schools are considered to be clergy, with the latter defending this before the Supreme Court in 2012. However, differences remain in the precise status the status of their teachers and the transfer of authority in the power of the keys as exercised by teachers.
Throughout the world
Today, millions belong to Lutheran churches, which are present on all populated continents. The Lutheran World Federation estimates the total membership of its churches over 74 million. This figure miscounts Lutherans worldwide as not all Lutheran churches belong to this organization, and many members of merged LWF church bodies do not self-identify as Lutheran or attend congregations that self-identify as Lutheran. Lutheran churches in North America, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean regions are experiencing decreases and no growth in membership, while those in Africa and Asia continue to grow. Lutheranism is the largest religious group in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Namibia, and North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States.
View of the altar and the pulpit in the Church of the Ascension in Jerusalem
Lutheranism is also the dominant form of Christianity in the White Mountain and San Carlos Apache nations. In addition, Lutheranism is a main Protestant denomination in Germany (behind United Protestant (Lutheran & Reformed) churches; EKD Protestants form about 25.5% of the country’s total population), Estonia, Poland, Austria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Papua New Guinea, and Tanzania. Although some convents and monasteries voluntarily closed during the Reformation, and many of the remaining damenstift were shuttered by communist authorities following World War II, the Lüne abbeys are still open. Nearly all active Lutheran orders are located in Europe.
Faith Lutheran School in Hong Kong.
Although Namibia is the only country outside Europe to have a Lutheran majority, there are sizable Lutheran bodies in other African countries. In the following African countries, the total number of Lutherans exceeds 100,000: Nigeria, Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya, Malawi, Congo, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and Madagascar. In addition, the following nations also have sizable Lutheran populations: Canada, France, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Brazil, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands (as a synod within the PKN and two strictly Lutheran denominations), South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, especially in the heavily German and Scandinavian Upper Midwest.
Lutheranism is also a state religion in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands. Finland has its Lutheran church established as a national church. Similarly, Sweden also has its national church, which was a state church until 2000.
Lutheran World Federation membership by country in 2013.
More than 10 million More than 5 million More than 1 million More than 500 thousand More than 100 thousand
- List of Lutheran denominations
- List of Lutheran denominations in North America
- List of Lutheran clergy
- List of Lutheran colleges and universities
- List of Lutheran dioceses and archdioceses
- List of Lutheran churches
- List of Lutheran schools in Australia
- Lutheran orders (both loose social organizations and physical communities such as convents.)
- ^ Cf. material and formal principles in theology
- ^ See Edward Wust and Wustism in the Russian Wikipedia for more on this.
- ^ One of the countries with a higher number of Lutherans is the United States. The LWF does not include the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and several other Lutheran bodies which together have over 2.5 million members
- ^ MSN Encarta, s.v. “Lutheranism” by George Wolfgang Forell; Christian Cyclopedia, s.v. “Reformation, Lutheran” by Lueker, E. et. al. Archived 2009-10-31. Lutherans believe that the Roman Catholic Church is not the same as the original Christian church.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Fahlbusch, Erwin, and Bromiley, Geoffrey William, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2003. p. 362.
- ^ Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Fourth Session, Decree on Sacred Scripture (Denzinger 783 ; Schaff 2:79–81). For a history of the discussion of various interpretations of the Tridentine decree, see Selby, Matthew L., The Relationship Between Scripture and Tradition according to the Council of Trent, unpublished Master’s thesis, University of St Thomas, July 2013.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Espín, Orlando O. and Nickoloff, James B. An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, p. 796.
- ^ “Bethany Lutheran Ministries – Home”. Bethany Lutheran Ministries. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Lutherans, Biblehistory.com
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Rohmann, J. L (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Chapter 12: The Reformation In Germany And Scandinavia, Renaissance and Reformation by William Gilbert.
- ^ Rohmann, J. L (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Kjobenhavn. p. 195. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ J. L. Rohmann (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Kjobenhavn. p. 202. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Rohmann, J. L (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ “Danmarks og Norges Kirke-Ritual (Kirkeritualet)”. retsinformation.dk. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Hastings, James (October 2004). A Dictionary of the Bible. ISBN 9781410217301. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ “Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church”. Retrieved 5 March2015.
- ^ N.F. Lutheran Cyclopedia, article, “Upsala, Diet of“, New York: Schrivner, 1899. pp. 528–529.
- ^ Lutheran Cyclopedia, article, “Agricola, Michael“, New York: Schrivner, 1899. p. 5.
- ^ Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 425
- ^ This photograph is of a replica of the original Hundskirche stone. Zeitschrift für Oesterreichische Volkskunde, (Google Books) by Theodor Vernaleken, 1896
- ^ Lutheran Theology after 1580 article in Christian Cyclopedia
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 426
- ^ Kleinig, Vernon P. “Confessional Lutheranism in Eighteenth-Century Germany.” Concordia Theological Quarterly 60(1–2) Jan–April 1996: Part I, Valentin Ernst Loescher p. 102.
- ^ Kleinig, Vernon P. “Confessional Lutheranism in Eighteenth-Century Germany.” Concordia Theological Quarterly 60(1–2) Jan–April 1996: Part II, Melchior Goeze pp. 109–112.
- ^ Rietschel, William C. An Introduction to the Foundations of Lutheran Education. St. Louis: Concordia, 2000. p. 25 (Although this reference specifically mentions Saxony, government promoted rationalism was a trend across Germany)
- ^ “Untitled Document”. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 180.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Armin Sierszyn: 2000 Jahre Kirchengeschichte, Book.4, Die Neuzeit, p. 155
- ^ Jump up to:a b Suelflow, Roy A. Walking With Wise Men. Milwaukee: South Wisconsin District (LCMS), 1967. p. 10
- ^ Jump up to:a b Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, Volume II, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 165.
- ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 182.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 183.
- ^ Building God’s Kingdom: Norwegian Missionaries in Highland Madagascar 1866–1903 by Karina Hestad Skeie, p. 22
- ^ Benton, William, ed. (1974). “Lutheran Churches”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 11(15 ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-85229-290-7.
- ^ Christian Cyclopedia article on Brünn
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 184.
- ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 187.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, Volume II, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1959, p. 21.
- ^ “Repristination Theology”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, Volume II, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 22.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Nichols, James Hastings. History of Christianity 1650–1950: Secularization of the West. New York, Ronald Press, 1956, p. 175.
- ^ Gassmann, Günther, et al. Historical dictionary of Lutheranism. Augsburg Fortress, Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2001. p. 32.
- ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 188.
- ^ Detzler, Wayne A. The Changing Church in Europe. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979. p. 17. Quotation from Manfred Kober, Theology in Germany, from the Reformation Review, April 1969.
- ^ For the traditional Lutheran view of the Bible, see Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 3ff. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.. For an overview of the doctrine of verbal inspiration in Lutheranism, see Inspiration, Doctrine of in the Christian Cyclopedia.
- ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 7ff. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006., Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 29.
- ^ Braaten, Carl E. (1983). Principles of Lutheran Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, p. 9
- ^ Preus, Robert. The Inspiration of Scripture: A Study of the Theology of the 17th Century Lutheran Dogmaticians. London: Oliver and Boyd, 1957. p. 39.
- ^ Benton, William, ed. (1978). “Lutheran Churches”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 11(15 ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. pp. 197–98. ISBN 978-0-85229-290-7.
- ^ U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices, Diverse and Politically Relevant. Washington D.C.: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. June 2008. p. 127. Accessed online on 27 September 2009 at http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/report2-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf.
- ^ Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 26.
- ^ “God’s Word, or Holy Scripture” from the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article II, of Original Sin
- ^ “the Scripture of the Holy Ghost.” Apology to the Augsburg Confession, Preface, 9
- ^ “The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord”. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Divination: Tobit 6:17, Prayer to the dead: 2 Macc. 12:42, Suicide: 2 Macc. 14:41–46,
- ^ See Bible, Canon in the Christian Cyclopedia Archived 20 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 27.
- ^ Psalm 19:8, Psalm 119:105, Psalm 119:130, 2 Timothy 3:15, Deuteronomy 30:11, 2 Peter 1:19, Ephesians 3:3–4, John 8:31–32, 2 Corinthians 4:3–4, John 8:43–47, 2 Peter 3:15–16, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 29., Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.
- ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006., Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.
- ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.
- ^ Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.
- ^ Romans 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 2:13, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006., Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 27.
- ^ Romans 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 1:5, Psalm 119:105, 2 Peter 1:19, 2 Timothy 1:16–17,Ephesians 3:3–4, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006., Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.
- ^ John 6:63, Revelation 1:3, Ephesians 3:3–4, John 7:17, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006., Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.
- ^ “Smalcald Articles – Book of Concord”. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ 2 Timothy 3:15–17, John 5:39, John 17:20, Psalm 19:7–8, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.
- ^ Isaiah 8:20, Luke 16:29–31, 2 Timothy 3:16–17, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007., Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.
- ^ “Defense of the Augsburg Confession – Book of Concord”. Retrieved 5 March2015.
- ^ Walther, C. F. W. The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel. W. H. T. Dau, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1929.
- ^ F.E. Mayer, The Religious Bodies of America. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1954, p. 184. For further information, see The Formula of Concord in the History of Swedish Lutheranism Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machineby Seth Erlandsson
- ^ The Ecumenical Councils and Authority in and of the Church. https://www.lutheranworld.org/sites/default/files/1993-Lutheran_Orthodox_Dialogue-EN.pdf: The Lutheran World Federation. 10 July 1993. The seven ecumenical councils of the early Church were assemblies of the bishops of the Church from all parts of the Roman Empire to clarify and express the apostolic faith. These councils are Nicaea (325 AD), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (680/81), and Nicaea II (787)… As Lutherans and Orthodox we affirm that the teachings of the ecumenical councils are authoritative for our churches….The Seventh Ecumenical Council, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, which rejected iconoclasm and restored the veneration of icons in the churches, was not part of the tradition received by the Reformation. Lutherans, however, rejected the iconoclasm of the 16th century, and affirmed the distinction between adoration due to the Triune God alone and all other forms of veneration (CA 21). Through historical research this council has become better known. Nevertheless it does not have the same significance for Lutherans as it does for the Orthodox. Yet, Lutherans and Orthodox are in agreement that the Second Council of Nicaea confirms the christological teaching of the earlier councils and in setting forth the role of images (icons) in the lives of the faithful reaffirms the reality of the incarnation of the eternal Word of God, when it states: “The more frequently, Christ, Mary, the mother of God, and the saints are seen, the more are those who see them drawn to remember and long for those who serve as models, and to pay these icons the tribute of salutation and respectful veneration. Certainly this is not the full adoration in accordance with our faith, which is properly paid only to the divine nature, but it resembles that given to the figure of the honored and life-giving cross, and also to the holy books of the gospels and to other sacred objects” (Definition of the Second Council of Nicaea).
- ^ Ecumenical Council. https://www.tititudorancea.net/z/ecumenical_council.htm: Titi Tudorancea Encyclopedia. 1991–2016. The Lutheran World Federation, in ecumenical dialogues with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople has affirmed all of the first seven councils as ecumenical and authoritative.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Ludwig, Alan (12 September 2016). “Luther’s Catholic Reformation”. The Lutheran Witness. When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession before Emperor Charles V in 1530, they carefully showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils and even the canon law of the Church of Rome. They boldly claim, “This is about the Sum of our Doctrine, in which, as can be seen, there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures, or from the Church Catholic, or from the Church of Rome as known from its writers” (AC XXI Conclusion 1). The underlying thesis of the Augsburg Confession is that the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church. In fact, it is actually the Church of Rome that has departed from the ancient faith and practice of the catholic church (see AC XXIII 13, XXVIII 72 and other places).
- ^ Paul R. Sponheim, “The Origin of Sin”, in Christian Dogmatics, Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson, eds. (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984), 385–407.
- ^ Francis Pieper, “Definition of Original Sin”, in Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953), 1:538.
- ^ Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 335–455, Part IX The Specific Doctrines Of The Conservative Reformation: Original Sin.
- ^ Formula of Concord, Original Sin.
- ^ Rom. 7:18, 8:7 1 Cor. 2:14, Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Vol. I. Trans. Fred Kramer, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, pp. 639–652, “The Third Question: Whether the Good Works of the Regenerate in This Life Are So Perfect that They Fully, Abundantly, and Perfectly Satisfy the Divine Law”.
- ^ Gen. 6:5, 8:21, Mat. 7:17, Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 388–390, Part IX The Specific Doctrines Of The Conservative Reformation: Original Sin, Thesis VII The Results, Section ii Positive.
- ^ Dt. 27:26,Rom. 5:12,2 Th. 1:9 Rom. 6:23, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 38–41, Part VIII. “Sin”
- ^ 1 Tim. 2:4, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 43–44, Part X. “Saving Grace”, paragraph 55.
- ^ Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Ev. Lutheran Church. St. Louis: Concordia, 1921. Large Catechism, The Lord’s Prayer, The Second Petition, Par. 51.
- ^ Gal. 3:13, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 43, Part X. “Saving Grace”, paragraph 54.
- ^ Rom. 10:4, Gal. 4:4–5, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 42, Part X. “Saving Grace”, paragraph 52.
- ^ Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article III, “Concerning the Righteousness of Faith before God”. par. 57–58. trans. Kolb, R., Wengert, T., and Arand, C. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2000.
- ^ “Augsburg Confession – Book of Concord”. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ John 17:3, Luke 1:77,Galatians 4:9, Philippians 3:8, and 1 Timothy 2:4refer to faith in terms of knowledge.
- ^ John 5:46 refers to acceptance of the truth of Christ’s teaching, while John 3:36 notes the rejection of his teaching.
- ^ John 3:16,36, Galatians 2:16, Romans 4:20–25, 2 Timothy 1:12 speak of trust, confidence, and belief in Christ. John 3:18 notes belief in the name of Christ, and Mark 1:15 notes belief in the gospel.
- ^ Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 54–55, Part XIV. “Sin”
- ^ Ps. 51:10, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 57 Part XV. “Conversion”, paragraph 78.
- ^ John 17:20, Rom. 10:17, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 101 Part XXV. “The Church”, paragraph 141.
- ^ Titus 3:5, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 87 Part XXIII. “Baptism”, paragraph 118.
- ^ Eph. 2:8, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 57 Part XV. “Conversion”, paragraph 78.
- ^ The Roman Catholic Catechism, part 3, section 1, chapter 3, article 2, II, paragraphs 2000 and 2001; downloaded February 18, 2017; defines grace as something which brings about a change in us, such that we cooperate in justification and act without sin (i.e. sanctified).
- ^ Is. 63:8–9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 158–160, section “The Doctrine of God”, part 5. “The Holy Trinity Revealed in the Old Testament”,Heb. 1:5, see Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 33–36, Part VI. “The Trinity”.
- ^ The Nicene Creed and the Filioque: A Lutheran Approach by Rev. David Webber for more information
- ^ Athanasian Creed – for an older Trinitarian Creed used by Lutherans, see the Nicene Creed: the version in Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006) of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) is the 1988 ecumenical (ELLC) version. But the version in both “Lutheran Service Book” (2006) of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod(LCMS) and the Lutheran Church Canada (LCC) is that of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer with modernized spelling of the words “catholic” and “apostolic”, with changes in capitalization of these and other words, and with “Holy Spirit” in place of “Holy Ghost”.
- ^ Luther’s Small Catechism, The Apostles’ Creed, Second Article, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 100ff. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.
- ^ Augsburg confession, Article III. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ “Private Absolution ought to be retained in the churches, although in confession an enumeration of all sins is not necessary.” Article XI: Of Confession
- ^ Matthew 28:19, 1 Corinthians 11:23–25, Matthew 26:26–28, Mark 14:22–24, Luke 22:19–20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Ephesians 5:27, John 3:5, John 3:23, 1 Corinthians 10:16, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Ephesians 5:26, 1 Corinthians 10:16, 1 Corinthians 11:24–25, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Matthew 3:16–17, John 3:5, 1 Corinthians 11:19, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Luke 7:30, Luke 22:19–20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Acts 21:16, Acts 2:38, Luke 3:3, Ephesians 5:26, 1 Peter 3:21, Galatians 3:26–27, Matthew 26:28, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ 1 Peter 3:21, Titus 3:5, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Titus 3:5, John 3:5, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ The Apology of the Augsburg Confession XIII, 2: “We believe we have the duty not to neglect any of the rites and ceremonies instituted in Scripture, whatever their number. We do not think it makes much difference if, for purposes of teaching, the enumeration varies, provided what is handed down in Scripture is preserved” (cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 211).
- ^ Luther’s Large Catechism IV, 1: “We have now finished the three chief parts of the common Christian doctrine. Besides these we have yet to speak of our two Sacraments instituted by Christ, of which also every Christian ought to have at least an ordinary, brief instruction, because without them there can be no Christian; although, alas! hitherto no instruction concerning them has been given” (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 733).
- ^ John 20:23, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 112–113, Part XXVI “The Ministry”, paragraph 156.
- ^ Luther’s Large Catechism IV, 74–75: “And here you see that Baptism, both in its power and signification, comprehends also the third Sacrament, which has been called repentance, as it is really nothing else than Baptism” (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 751).
- ^ The Apology of the Augsburg Confession XIII, 3, 4: “If we define the sacraments as rites, which have the command of God and to which the promise of grace has been added, it is easy to determine what the sacraments are, properly speaking. For humanly instituted rites are not sacraments, properly speaking, because human beings do not have the authority to promise grace. Therefore signs instituted without the command of God are not sure signs of grace, even though they perhaps serve to teach or admonish the common folk. Therefore, the sacraments are actually baptism, the Lord’s Supper, and absolution (the sacrament of repentance)” (cf. Tappert, 211). Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article 13, Of the Number and Use of the Sacraments
- ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, article 24, paragraph 1. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Wendel, David M. (1997). Manual for the Recovery of a Parish Practice of Individual Confession and Absolution (PDF). The Society of the Holy Trinity. pp. 2, 7, 8, 11.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kolb, Robert (2008). Lutheran Ecclesiastical Culture: 1550 – 1675. Brill Publishers. p. 282. ISBN 9789004166417. The North German church ordinances of the late 16th century all include a description of private confession and absolution, which normally took place at the conclusion of Saturday afternoon vespers, and was a requirement for all who desired to commune the following day.
- ^ This picture is cropped from c:File:Melanchthon-tauft.jpg.
- ^ 1 Pet. 3:21, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 491–496, section “The Doctrine of Baptism”, part 4. “Baptism a True Means of Grace”, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 87, Part XXIII. “Baptism”, paragraph 118.
- ^ Martin Luther, Small Catechism 4
- ^ Titus 3:5
- ^ John 3:3–7
- ^ “Baptism and Its Purpose”. Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- ^ Luther, Martin (2009) . “The Sacrament of Holy Baptism”. Luther’s Small Catechism. ISBN 978-0-89279-043-2.
- ^ 1 Peter 3:21
- ^ Mat. 19:14, Acts 2:38–39, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 90, Part XXIII. “Baptism”, paragraph 122.
- ^ 1 Cor. 1:14, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 90, Part XXIII. “Baptism”, paragraph 122.
- ^ Luther, Martin (2009) . “Of Infant Baptism”. Luther’s Large Catechism. ISBN 978-1-4264-3861-5.Luther’s Large Catechism – Holy Baptism
- ^ “Augsburg Confession – Book of Concord”. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ 1 Cor. 10:16, 11:20, 27, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 95, Part XXIV. “The Lord’s Supper”, paragraph 131.
- ^ The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article 8, The Holy Supper
- ^ Richard, James William (1909). The Confessional History of the Lutheran Church. Lutheran Publication Society. p. 113. In the Luthearn Church, private confession was at first voluntary. Later, in portions of the Lutheran Church, it was made obligatory, as a test of orthodoxy, and as a preparation of the Lord’s Supper.
- ^ Granquist, Mark A. (2015). Scandinavian Pietists: Spiritual Writings from 19th-Century Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. Paulist Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781587684982. Initially, Laestadius exercised his ministry mainly among the indigenous Sami (Lapp) people, but his influence soon spread into areasa of northern Finland, and the Laestadian (or Apostolic Lutheran) movement became predominantly Finnish. Even though he was a university-trained pastor and scientist (he was a renowned botanist), his powerful preaching and spiritual example ignited a lay-awakening movement in the north, a movement that is known for its distinctive religious practices, including lay confession and absolution.
- ^ Augustus Lawrence Graebner, Lutheran Cyclopedia p. 136, “Conversion”
- ^ “Augsburg Confession – Book of Concord”. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ 1 Cor. 2:14, 12:3, Rom. 8:7, Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Vol. I. Trans. Fred Kramer, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, pp. 409–453, “Seventh Topic, Concerning Free Will: From the Decree of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent”.
- ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 18, Of Free Will.
- ^ Acts 13:48, Eph. 1:4–11, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article 11, Election, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 585–589, section “The Doctrine of Eternal Election: 1. The Definition of the Term”, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 124–128, Part XXXI. “The Election of Grace”, paragraph 176.
- ^ 2 Thess. 2:13, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 589–93, section “The Doctrine of Eternal Election: 2. How Believers are to Consider Their Election, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127–128, Part XXXI. “The Election of Grace”, paragraph 180.
- ^ Rom. 8:33, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127–128, Part XXXI. “The Election of Grace”, paragraph 179., Engelder, T.E.W., The Certainty of Final Salvation. The Lutheran Witness 2(6). English Evangelical Missouri Synod: Baltimore. 1891, pp. 41ff.
- ^ 1 Tim. 2:4, 2 Pet. 3:9, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article 11, Election, and Engelder’s Popular Symbolics, Part XXXI. The Election of Grace, pp. 124–128.
- ^ 1 Timothy 2:3–4
- ^ Hos. 13:9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 637, section “The Doctrine of the Last Things (Eschatology), part 7. “Eternal Damnation”, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 135–136, Part XXXIX. “Eternal Death”, paragraph 196.
- ^ Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House. 1934. pp. 189–195 and Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 635 and Christian Cyclopedia article on Divine Providence. For further reading, see The Proof Texts of the Catechism with a Practical Commentary, section Divine Providence, p. 212, Wessel, Louis, published in Theological Quarterly, Vol. 11, 1909.
- ^ Mueller, Steven P.,Called to Believe, Teach, and Confess. Wipf and Stock. 2005. pp. 122–123.
- ^ Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House: 1934. pp. 190 and Edward. W. A.,A Short Explanation of Dr. Martin Luther’s Small Catechism. Concordia Publishing House. 1946. p. 165. and Divine Providence and Human Adversity Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine by Markus O. Koepsell
- ^ “The Small Catechism”. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Luther’s Large Catechism, First Commandment
- ^ John 15:5, Tit. 2:14, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 62–63, Part XV. “Conversion”, paragraph 88 The New Obedience Is The Fruit Of Conversion, The Product Of Faith.
- ^ 2 Cor. 9:8, Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 313–314, Part D Confession of the Conservative Reformation: II, Secondary Confessions: Book of Concord, Formula of Concord, Part IV The Doctrinal Result, 2, Section iv, Of Good Works.
- ^ Phil 2:13, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 74, Part XIX. “Preservation in Faith”, paragraph 102.
- ^ Rom. 7:18 Heb 11:6, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 39–40, Part VIII. “Sin”, paragraph 46 “Original Sin”.
- ^ “Mat. 7:15–16; NIV – True and False Prophets”. Bible Gateway. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Albrecht Beutel, “Luther’s Life”, tr. Katharina Gustavs, in The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther, ed. Donald K. McKim (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 11.
- ^ quoted in Scaer, David. Luther’s Concept of the Resurrection Concordia Theological Quarterly 47(3)Archived 4 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine p. 219
- ^ “Joh 18:36; ESV – Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of…” Bible Gateway. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ Luke 23:42–43, 2 Cor. 5:8, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 130, Part XXXIV. “The State of the Soul in the Interval Between Death and the Resurrection”, paragraph 185.
- ^ 1 Cor. 15:22–24, Francis Pieper, Christian Dogmatics, 505–515; Heinrich Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 624–32; John Mueller, Christian Dogmatics, 616–619
- ^ John 6:40, John 6:54
- ^ John 5:21, John 5:28–29, Matthew 25:32, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Acts 24:15
- ^ Romans 8:11, Philippians 3:21, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Job 19:26, 1 Corinthians 15:44, 1 Corinthians 15:53, John 5:28, Revelation 20:12
- ^ Daniel 12:2, Matthew 25:41–46, John 5:29
- ^ Daniel 12:1–2, John 5:29, 1 Corinthians 15:52, 1 Corinthians 15:42–44, 1 Corinthians 15:49–53, Philippians 3:21, Matthew 13:43, Revelation 7:16
- ^ John 6:40, John 6:44, John 11:24
- ^ 1 Corinthians 15:51–52, 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17
- ^ Matthew 25:32, Romans 14:10, John 5:22, Acts 17:31, Revelation 1:7
- ^ Matthew 25:32, Mark 16:16
- ^ 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 4:5, Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16
- ^ Romans 2:6, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Matthew 25:35–36, Matthew 25:42–43
- ^ Isaiah 43:25, Ezekiel 18:22, 1 John 2:28
- ^ Matthew 25:34–35, John 3:16–18, John 3:36, Revelation 14:13, Galatians 5:6, John 13:35
- ^ Matthew 25:42, Matthew 7:17–18, John 3:18, John 3:36
- ^ Romans 2:5, Acts 17:31, Romans 2:16
- ^ Luke 9:26, Matthew 25:31–32
- ^ Matthew 25:41, Matthew 25:34, Matthew 25:46, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 233–8. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7.
- ^ Table drawn from, though not copied, from Lange, Lyle W. God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006. p. 448.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “Calvinism and Lutheranism Compared”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2015. Both (Lutherans and Calvinists) agree on the devastating nature of the fall and that man by nature has no power to aid in his conversions…and that election to salvation is by grace. In Lutheranism the German term for election is Gnadenwahl, election by grace–there is no other kind.
- ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, III.23.2.
- ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, II.3.5.
- ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, III.3.6.
- ^ WELS Topical Q&A: WELS vs Assembly of God: “[P]eople by nature are dead in their tranbsgressions (sic) and sin and therefore have no ability to decide of Christ (Ephesians 2:1, 5). We do not choose Christ, rather he chose us (John 15:16) We believe that human beings are purely passive in conversion.”
- ^ Augsburg Confessional, Article XVIII, Of Free Will, saying: “(M)an’s will has some liberty to choose civil righteousness, and to work things subject to reason. But it has no power, without the Holy Ghost, to work the righteousness of God, that is, spiritual righteousness; since the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God (1 Cor. 2:14); but this righteousness is wrought in the heart when the Holy Ghost is received through the Word.”
- ^ Henry Cole, trans., Martin Luther on the Bondage of the Will (London, T. Bensley, 1823), 66. The controversial term liberum arbitrium was translated “free-will” by Cole. However Ernest Gordon Rupp and Philip Saville Watson, Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation (Westminister, 1969) chose “free choice” as their translation.
- ^ Stanglin, Keith D.; McCall, Thomas H. (15 November 2012). Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace. New York: OUP USA. pp. 157–158.
- ^ The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Lutheran Church, XI. Election. “Predestination” means “God’s ordination to salvation”.
- ^ Olson, Roger E. (2009). Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. p. 63. “Arminians accepts divine election, [but] they believe it is conditional.”
- ^ The Westminster Confession, III:6, says that only the “elect” are “effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved.” However in his Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Baker, 2012), 45, Richard A. Muller observes that “a sizeable body of literature has interpreted Calvin as teaching “limited atonement”, but “an equally sizeable body . . . [interprets] Calvin as teaching “unlimited atonement”.
- ^ “Justification / Salvation”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 29 January2015. Romans 3:23-24, 5:9, 18 are other passages that lead us to say that it is most appropriate and accurate to say that universal justification is a finished fact. God has forgiven the sins of the whole world whether people believe it or not. He has done more than “made forgiveness possible.” All this is for the sake of the perfect substitutionary work of Jesus Christ.
- ^ “IV. Justification by Grace through Faith”. This We Believe. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Retrieved 5 February 2015. We believe that God has justified all sinners, that is, he has declared them righteous for the sake of Christ. This is the central message of Scripture upon which the very existence of the church depends. It is a message relevant to people of all times and places, of all races and social levels, for “the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men” (Romans 5:18). All need forgiveness of sins before God, and Scripture proclaims that all have been justified, for “the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men” (Romans 5:18). We believe that individuals receive this free gift of forgiveness not on the basis of their own works, but only through faith (Ephesians 2:8–9). … On the other hand, although Jesus died for all, Scripture says that “whoever does not believe will be condemned” (Mark 16:16). Unbelievers forfeit the forgiveness won for them by Christ (John 8:24).
- ^ Becker, Siegbert W. “Objective Justification” (PDF). Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. p. 1. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- ^ “Universal Justification”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 5 February2015. Christ paid for all our sins. God the Father has therefore forgiven them. But to benefit from this verdict we need to hear about it and trust in it. If I deposit money in the bank for you, to benefit from it you need to hear about it and use it. Christ has paid for your sins, but to benefit from it you need to hear about it and believe in it. We need to have faith but we should not think of faith as our contribution. It is a gift of God which the Holy Spirit works in us.
- ^ Augsburg Confession, Article V, Of Justification. People “cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits, or works, but are freely justified for Christ’s sake, through faith, when they believe that they are received into favor, and that their sins are forgiven for Christ’s sake. …”
- ^ Stanglin, Keith D.; McCall, Thomas H. (15 November 2012). Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace. New York: OUP USA. p. 136. Faith is a condition of justification
- ^ Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ’s Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals(Peter Lang, 2006), 70, note 171. Calvin generally defends Augustine’s “monergistic view”.
- ^ Diehl, Walter A. “The Age of Accountability”. Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. Retrieved 10 February 2015. In full accord with Scripture the Lutheran Confessions teach monergism. “In this manner, too, the Holy Scriptures ascribe conversion, faith in Christ, regeneration, renewal and all the belongs to their efficacious beginning and completion, not to the human powers of the natural free will, neither entirely, nor half, nor in any, even the least or most inconsiderable part, but in solidum, that is, entirely, solely, to the divine working and the Holy Ghost” (Trigl. 891, F.C., Sol. Decl., II, 25).
- ^ Monergism; thefreedictionary.com
- ^ “Calvinism and Lutheranism Compared”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- ^ Olson, Roger E. (2009). Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. p. 18. Arminian synergism” refers to “evangelical synergism, which affirms the prevenience of grace.
- ^ Olson, Roger E. (2010). “One more quick sidebar about clarifying Arminianism”. My evangelical, Arminian theological musings. Retrieved 27 August 2019. Classical Arminianism does NOT say God never interferes with free will. It says God NEVER foreordains or renders certain evil. […] An Arminian COULD believe in divine dictation of Scripture and not do violence to his or her Arminian beliefs. […] Arminianism is not in love with libertarian free will –as if that were central in and of itself. Classical Arminians have gone out of our way (beginning with Arminius himself) to make clear that our sole reasons for believe in free will AS ARMINIANS […] are 1) to avoid making God the author of sin and evil, and 2) to make clear human responsibility for sin and evil.
- ^ The Westminster Confession of Faith, Ch XVII, “Of the Perseverance of the Saints”.
- ^ “Once saved always saved”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2015. People can fall from faith. The Bible warns, “If you think you are standing firm, be careful that you don’t fall” (1 Corinthians 10:12). Some among the Galatians had believed for a while, but had fallen into soul-destroying error. Paul warned them, “You who are trying to be justified by law have been alienated from Christ; you have fallen away from grace” (Galatians 5:4). In his explanation of the parable of the sower, Jesus says, “Those on the rock are the ones who receive the word with joy when they hear it, but they have no root. They believe for a while, but in time of testing they fall away” (Luke 8:13). According to Jesus a person can believe for a while and then fall away. While they believed they possessed eternal salvation, but when they fell from faith they lost God’s gracious gift.
- ^ “Perseverence of the Saints (Once Saved Always Saved)”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2015. We cannot contribute one speck to our salvation, but by our own arrogance or carelessness we can throw it away. Therefore, Scripture urges us repeatedly to fight the good fight of faith (Ephesians 6 and 2 Timothy 4 for example). My sins threaten and weaken my faith, but the Spirit through the gospel in word and sacraments strengthens and preserves my faith. That’s why Lutherans typically speak of God’s preservation of faith and not the perseverance of the saints. The key is not our perseverance but the Spirit’s preservation.
- ^ Demarest, Bruce A. (1997). The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation. Crossway Books. pp. 437–438.
- ^ Demarest, Bruce A. (1997). The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation. Crossway Books. p. 35. “Many Arminians deny the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints.”
- ^ McGrath, Alister, E. Christianity: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 2006. p. 272.
- ^ Taruskin, Richard. The Oxford History of Western Music – Volume I (Music in the Earliest Notations to the sixteenth century), pp. 753–758 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010)
- ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV.1
- ^ Jump up to:a b See Luther’s Small Catechism, Daily Prayers
- ^ Hämmerli, Maria; Mayer, Jean-François (23 May 2016). Orthodox Identities in Western Europe: Migration, Settlement and Innovation. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 9781317084914.
- ^ Principle examples of this in the ELCA include Family of God, Cape Coral FL., The Well, Charlotte NC, Hosanna! of Lakeville, Minnesota, and Church of the Apostles, Seattle WA. Archived 20 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ “A given culture’s values and patterns, insofar as they are consonant with the values of the Gospel, can be used to express the meaning and purpose of Christian worship. Contextualization is a necessary task for the Church’s mission in the world, so that the Gospel can be ever more deeply rooted in diverse local cultures.”NAIROBI STATEMENT ON WORSHIP AND CULTURE: Contemporary Challenges and Opportunities Archived 22 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Piepkorn, A.C. Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 31.
- ^ Piepkorn, A.C. , Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 32.
- ^ Piepkorn, A.C. , Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 35.
- ^ Piepkorn, A.C. , Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 33.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Piepkorn, A.C., Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 34.
- ^ Hunt, T.; Carper, J. (2012). The Praeger Handbook of Faith-Based Schools in the United States, K-12, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 177. ISBN 0313391394.
- ^ Preface to Luther’s Large and preface to Luther’s Small Catechism.
- ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin, and Bromiley, Geoffrey William, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2003. p. 367.
- ^ Absolutism and the Eighteenth-Century Origins of Compulsory Schooling in Prussia and Austria (Google Books) by James van Horn Melton, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
- ^ Klug, Eugene F. and Stahlke, Otto F. Getting into the Formula of Concord. St. Louis: Concordia, 1977. p. 16
- ^ Klug, Eugene F. and Stahlke, Otto F. Getting into the Formula of Concord. St. Louis: Concordia. p. 18
- ^ See Lutheran Orthodoxy Under Fire: An Exploratory Study of the Syncretistic Controversy And The Consensus Repetitus Fidei Vere Lutheranae Archived15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine and Strenuus Christi Athleta Abraham Calov (1612–1686): Sainted Doctor And Defender of the Church Archived 15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, both by Timothy R. Schmeling
- ^ (in Swedish)Svenskakyrkan.se Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Bente, Friedrich, 1858–1930. American Lutheranism Volume 1: Early History of American Lutheranism: Lutheran Swedes in Delaware. St. Louis: Concordia, 1919, pp. 13–16.
- ^ Eklund, Emmet E. (1988). His Name Was Jonas: A Biography of Jonas Swenson. Rock Island, Ill.: Augustana Historical Society. p. 99. ISBN 978-0910184366. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 185.
- ^ For a historical example, see Robert Preus, To Join or Not To Join. North Dakota District of The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, 1968.
- ^ See Brief Statement was adopted as LCMS doctrine in 1932, and from time to time has been adopted by other Lutherans Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Report of the Lutheran Church, The Northwestern Lutheran, p. 281, 31 August 1988.
- ^ These include, but are not limited to the following: the American Provinces of the Moravian Church, the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Reformed Church in America, the United Methodist Church, and the United Church of Christ.
- ^ For a similar phenomenon also currently developing, see Anglican realignment.
- ^ see Ecumenism: Facts and Illusions by Kurt E. Marquart for a short explanation of the modern ecumenism movement from a Confessional Lutheran perspective
- ^ See scholarly articles on the Church Growth Movement Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library and Implications of the Church Growth Movement for Lutherans: Possibilities and Concerns Archived 14 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine by Harold L. Senkbeil as examples of criticism from confessional Lutherans
- ^ For some opinions and historical discussion from someone who takes a broader view, see What is a call?: or, When is a call a call, and who makes it such? By Alfred H. Maaske
- ^ Gassman, Günther; Larson, Duane H.; Olderburg, Mark W. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism (2nd ed.). The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
- ^ Das kirchliche Amt in apostolischer Nachfolge. In: Dorothea Sattler, Gunther Wenz: Das kirchliche Amt in apostolischer Nachfolge. Volume 3: Verständigungen und Differenzen. Herder/ Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Freiburg and Göttingen 2008. ISBN 3-451-29943-7, p. 167–267, and p. 266.
- ^ Karelian religious movement Uskhovayzet
- ^ Kirche weltweit Ukraine: “Ihre Gemeinde ist annulliert” 18.09.2016 by Von Helmut Frank]
- ^ A New “Old” Lutheran Church in Asian Russia by Alexei Streltsov, in Logia, Epiphany 2006: Volume 15, Number 1
- ^ Jump up to:a b Zahlen und Fakte zum kirchlichen Leben 2019 Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland
- ^ This website has text and midi files for the 1865 Pennsylvania Ministerium hymnal.
- ^ Abdel Ross Wentz (1954), A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, Philadelphia, Pa., p. 41
- ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion in the United States, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., pp. 6, 140
- ^ For example, the single Lutheran church on the island of Guam is a member of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ. See Lutheran Church of Guam History
- ^ For example, Trinity New Haven, MO is a member congregation of the Missouri Synod even though their pastor is independent. This congregation was expelled from the Missouri Synod for a while over this, but they challenged it and got back in.
- ^ Due to influence from former Missourians joining the ELCA in the American Evangelical Lutheran Church
- ^ One example of these differences are those between the Missouri and Wisconsin Synods.
- ^ “About Us”. Lutheran Church of New Zealand. Retrieved 5 March 2015.However, some Lutherans disagree with the way the Lutheran World Federation arrives at this number, as millions of them actually come from bodies that are largely Reformed, but include some Lutherans. For more information on this, see: William Schumacher, “Theological Observer: How Many Lutherans?” Archived 10 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Concordia Journal April 2005, “Archived copy”(PDF). Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
- ^ “Member Churches”. The Lutheran World Federation. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July2012., The Lutheran World Federation
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Dominant Protestant Denomination Per Country, 1995.
- ^ Lutherans as a Percentage of All Residents, 2000 Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine (Map by county). Also see comparable maps of other religions along with specific denominations of Lutheran at the main American Ethnic Geography Archived 9 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine site
- ^ 2011 World Lutheran Membership Details Archived 24 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ “Sweden Ends Designation of Lutheranism as Official Religion”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ The Lutheran World Federation 2013 Membership Figures
- ALC Historical Perspective: Nervig, Casper B. Christian Truth and Religious Delusions, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1941.
- Arand, Charles P, and Robert Kolb, eds. The Lutheran Confessions: History and Theology of the Book of Concord (2012)
- Bodensieck, Julius, ed. The encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church (3 vol 1965) vol 1 and 3 online free
- Brauer, James Leonard and Fred L. Precht, eds. Lutheran Worship: History and Practice (1993)
- CLC Perspective: Concerning Church Fellowship: A Statement of Principle. Eau Claire, WI: CLC Book House. 1996.
- Confessional & Historical Perspective: Günther Gassmann & Scott Hendrix. Fortress Introduction to the Lutheran Confessions. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8006-3162-5.
- European Lutheran perspective: Elert, Werner. The Structure of Lutheranism: the Theology and Philosophy of Life of Lutheranism, Especially in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, trans. by Walter A. Hansen. Saint Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1962. N.B.: Trans. of Morphologie des Luthertums, vol. 1 of which was published in 1931 at Munich by C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1931, vol. 2 in German appearing in 1932; the t.p. of this English-language ed. states “Volume One”, but there has been no publication, as part of this English ed., of vol. 2.
- Fellowship of Lutheran Congregations Perspective: What True Lutherans Teach. Oak Parks, Ill.: E.L.C. Tract Center, [199?]. 11 p. N.B.: There is no personal author or specific committee credited with this brochure.
- General Council Historical Perspective: Krauth, Charles Porterfield (1875). The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott. p. 840. ISBN 978-0-7586-0994-6.
- Granquist, Mark. Lutherans in America: A New History (2015)
- LCA Historical Perspective: Braaten, Carl E. (1983). Principles of Lutheran Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-1689-2.
- LCA Historical Worship Perspective: Reed, Luther D. The Lutheran Liturgy: a Study [especially] of the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America. Philadelphia, Penn.: Muhlenberg Press, 1947. N.B.: This study also includes some coverage of other Lutheran liturgical services, especially of Matins and Vespers.
- LCMS Perspective: Pieper, Franz (1950–1957). Christian Dogmatics. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 3 Volumes. ISBN 978-0-570-06714-6.
- LCMS Perspective: Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 526.
- LCMS Perspective: Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod (1932). Saint Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House.
- LCMS Perspective: Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-524-04891-7. Archived from the original on 9 July 2006.
- LCMS Perspective: Kretzschmar, Karl (198?). What Lutherans Teach. St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Tract Mission.
- LCMS Perspective: Neuhaus, Richard John (1969). The Lutherans (in “Ecumenical Series”). New York: Paulist Press. N.B.: At the time of the publication of this document, Neuhaus was still a Lutheran pastor, of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.
- LCR Perspective: McLaughlin, Wallace H. (1963). We All Believe in One True God: A Summary of Biblical Doctrine. Midland, Michigan: Cross of Christ Press.
- Meyer, Carl S. Moving Frontiers: Readings in the History of the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod (1986)
- Neo-Lutheran Historical Perspective: Schmid, Heinrich Friedrich Ferdinand (1876). The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-7905-8877-3.
- Norwegian Synod Historical Perspective: Monson, Ingvar Grøthe (1915). The Difference: A Popular Guide to Denominational History and Doctrine. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.
- Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (1998)
- Slovak Synod Historical Perspective: Richter, V. W. (1913). Why Should a Lutheran Not Join Any Sectarian Church?. Streator, Illinois: Svedok Publishing House.
- WELS Perspective: Lange, Lyle W. (2006). God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Northwestern Publishing House. ISBN 978-0-8100-1744-3.
- Comparison of about 50 Lutheran church bodies in America: Brug, John F. (2009). WELS & Other Lutherans (2nd ed.). Northwestern Publishing House. ISBN 978-0-8100-0543-3.
- Comparison of Catholic, Lutheran, and Protestant doctrine: Jackson, Gregory L. (2007). Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: A Doctrinal Comparison of Three Christian Confessions (PDF). Glendale, Arizona: Martin Chemnitz Press.[permanent dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lutheranism.|
- Moldehnke, Edward F. “Was ist denn eigentlich ein Lutheraner?” Evangelish-Lutherisches Gemeinde-Blatt. Vol. 1, nos. 8–10 (1866). Trans. Nathaniel J. Biebert. “So What Actually Is a Lutheran?” Studium Excitare. Issue No. 12 (2010).
- “Lutherans” . Collier’s New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- A historical study of the Laestadian Lutheran Church, the SRK, and Conservative Laestadianism
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then i stopped drinking. i was a writer back then too
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Rastafari, also known as Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. It is classified as both a new religious movement and a social movement by scholars of religion. There is no central authority in control of the movement and much diversity exists among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas.
Rasta beliefs are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible. Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who partially resides within each individual. Rastafari also maintains that Jah incarnated in human form as Jesus Christ. Rastas accord Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia between 1930 and 1974, central importance; many regard him as the Second Coming of Christ and thus Jah incarnate, while others see him as a human prophet who fully recognized the inner divinity in every individual. Rastafari is Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora, which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or “Babylon”. Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora in Africa, referring to this continent as the Promised Land of “Zion”. Rastas refer to their practices as “livity“. Communal meetings are known as “groundations”, and are typified by music, chanting, discussions, and the smoking of cannabis, the latter being regarded as a sacrament with beneficial properties. Rastas place emphasis on what they regard as living “naturally”, adhering to ital dietary requirements, twisting their hair into dreadlocks, and following patriarchal gender roles.
Rastafari originated among impoverished and socially disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities in 1930s Jamaica. Its Afrocentric ideology was largely a reaction against Jamaica’s then-dominant British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey. The movement developed after several Protestant Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell, proclaimed that Haile Selassie’s crowning as Ethiopian emperor in 1930 fulfilled a Biblical prophecy. By the 1950s, Rastafari’s counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the 1960s and 1970s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley. Enthusiasm for Rastafari declined in the 1980s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie and Marley, but the movement survived and has a presence in many parts of the world.
The Rasta movement is decentralised and organised on a largely cellular basis. There are several denominations, or “Mansions of Rastafari“, the most prominent of which are the Nyahbinghi, Bobo Ashanti, and the Twelve Tribes of Israel, each offering a different interpretation of Rasta belief. There are an estimated 700,000 to 1 million Rastas across the world; the largest population is in Jamaica, although communities can be found in most of the world’s major population centres. The majority of practitioners are of black African descent, although a minority come from other ethnic groups.
- 7See also
- 9External links
Two Rasta street vendors in Zeerust, South Africa; they are wearing and selling items that display their commitment to the religion
Scholars of religion have categorised Rastafari as a new religious movement. Leonard E. Barrett referred to it as a sect, while Sheila Kitzinger and Ernest Cashmore called it a cult, and Ennis B. Edmonds argued that it could best be understood as a revitalization movement. In various countries, it has received legal recognition as a religion. Other scholars have categorized it in different ways. Emphasising its political stance, particularly in support of African nationalism and Pan-Africanism, some have seen it as a political movement, or as a “politico-religious” movement. It has alternatively been labelled a social movement, or more specifically as a new social movement.
Although Rastafari focuses on Africa as a source of identity, Maboula Soumahoro noted that it was not an “authentic” African religion but an example of creolization, a product of the unique social environment that existed in the Americas. Katrin Hansing described it as “one of the leading Afro-Caribbean religions”. Edmonds also suggested that Rastafari was “emerging” as a world religion, not because of the number of adherents that it had, but because of its global spread. Many Rastas themselves, however, do not regard it as a religion, instead referring to it as a “way of life”, or as a “spirituality“. Midas H. Chawane nevertheless noted that it met many of the proposed definitions of a religion. In 1989, a British Industrial Tribunal concluded that—for the purposes of the Race Relations Act 1976—Rastafarians could be considered an ethnic group because they have a long, shared heritage which distinguished themselves from other groups, their own cultural traditions, a common language, and a common religion.
Rastafari is a decentralised and heterogeneous movement; it is neither monolithic nor homogenous. The movement has continuously changed and developed over the course of its history. It is thus difficult to make broad generalisations about the movement without obscuring the complexities within it. Darren J. N. Middleton suggested that it was appropriate to speak of “a plethora of Rasta spiritualities” displaying a “shifting eclecticism”, while William F. Lewis commented that the movement’s diversity “has produced a complexity which is overwhelming to the observer”.
The term “Rastafari” derives from the pre-regnal title of Haile Selassie, “Ras Tafari Makonnen”; the term “Ras” means a duke or prince, while “Tafari Makonen” was his name. It is unknown why the early Rastas adopted this form of Haile Selassie’s name as the basis of their religion’s name. As well as being the religion’s name, it is also used for the religion’s practitioners themselves.
Many commentators—including some academic sources—refer to the movement as “Rastafarianism”. This term has also been used by some practitioners. However, the term “Rastafarianism” is considered embarrassing by many Rastas, who believe it has connotations of doctrine and organisation which they wish to avoid. Cashmore urged fellow academics not to use this term, which he described as “insensitive”.
Rastas refer to the totality of their religion’s ideas and beliefs as “Rastalogy”. Edmonds described Rastafari as having “a fairly cohesive worldview”; however, Cashmore thought that its beliefs were “fluid and open to interpretation”. Attempts have been made to summarise Rastafari belief, but these have never been accorded the status of a catechism or creed within the movement.
Rastas place great emphasis on the idea that personal experience and intuitive understanding should be used to determine the truth or validity of a particular belief or practice. No Rasta, therefore, has the authority to declare what beliefs and practices are orthodox and which are heterodox. The conviction that Rastafari has no dogma “is so strong that it has itself become something of a dogma”, according to Clarke.
Rastafari is deeply influenced by Judeo-Christian religion, and shares many commonalities with Christianity. It accords the Bible a central place in its belief system, regarding it as a holy book, and adopts a literalist interpretation of its contents. According to the anthropologist Stephen D. Glazier, Rasta approaches to the Bible result in the religion adopting an outlook that is very similar to forms of Protestantism. Rastas regard the Bible as an authentic account of early black African history and their place as God’s favoured people. They regard the Bible as the key to understanding both the past and the present and for predicting the future, while also regarding it as a source book from which they can form and legitimate their religious beliefs and practices. Rastas commonly regard the final book of the Bible, the Book of Revelation, as the most important part, because they see its contents as having particular significance for the world’s present situation.
Contrary to scholarly understandings of how the Bible was compiled, Rastas commonly believe it was originally written on stone in the Ethiopian language of Amharic. They also believe that the Bible’s true meaning has been warped, both through mistranslation into other languages and by deliberate manipulation by those seeking to deny black Africans their history. They also regard it as cryptographic, meaning that it has many hidden meanings. They believe that its true teachings can be revealed through intuition and meditation with the “book within”. As a result of what they regard as the corruption of the Bible, Rastas also turn to other sources that they believe shed light on black African history. Common texts used for this purpose include Leonard Howell‘s 1935 work The Promised Key, Robert Athlyi Rogers‘ 1924 book Holy Piby, and Fitz Balintine Pettersburg 1920s work, the Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy.
Jah and Jesus of Nazareth
A Rasta mural in Sheshame, Ethiopia depicting Haile Selassie and the Lion of Judah
Rastafari are monotheists, worshiping a singular God whom they call Jah. The term “Jah” is a shortened version of “Jehovah“, the name of God in English translations of the Old Testament. As well as regarding Jah as a deity, Rastas also believe that Jah is inherent within each human individual. This belief is reflected in the aphorism, often cited by Rastas, that “God is man and man is God”. Rastas speak of “knowing” Jah, rather than simply “believing” in him. In seeking to narrow the distance between humanity and divinity, Rastafari embraces mysticism.
Jesus of Nazareth is an important figure in Rastafari. However, practitioners reject the traditional Christian view of Jesus, particularly the depiction of him as a white European, believing that this is a perversion of the truth. They believe that Jesus was a black African and that he was a Rasta. Many Rastas regard Christianity as the creation of the white man; they treat it with suspicion out of the view that the oppressors (white Europeans) and the oppressed (black Africans) cannot share the same God. Many Rastas take the view that the God worshipped by most white Christians is actually the Devil, and a recurring saying among Rastas is that “The Pope is Satan”. Rastas therefore often view Christian preachers as deceivers, and regard Christianity as being guilty of furthering the oppression of the African diaspora, often referring to it as having perpetrated “mental enslavement”. Jesus is given particular prominence among a Rastafari denomination known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Rastas belonging to this group refer to Jesus as Yahshua and Yesus Kritos, and believe that his second coming is imminent.
From its origins, Rastafari was intrinsically linked with Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. He remains the central figure in Rastafari ideology, and although all Rastas hold him in esteem, precise interpretations of his identity differ. Understandings of how Haile Selassie relates to Jesus differ among Rastas. Many, although not all, believe that the Ethiopian monarch was the Second Coming of Jesus, legitimating this by reference to their interpretation of the nineteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation. By viewing Haile Selassie as Jesus, these Rastas also regard him as the messiah prophesied in the Old Testament, the manifestation of God in human form, and “the living God”. Some perceive him as part of a Trinity, alongside God as Creator and the Holy Spirit, the latter referred to as “the Breath within the temple”. Rastas who view Haile Selassie as Jesus argue that both were descendants from the royal line of the Biblical king David, while Rastas also emphasise the fact that the Makonnen dynasty, of which Haile Selassie was a member, claimed descent from the Biblical figures Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia between 1930 and 1974. He is of central importance to Rastas, many of whom regard him as the Second Coming of Jesus and thus God incarnate in human form.
Other Rastas see Selassie as embodying Jesus’ teachings and essence but reject the idea that he was the literal reincarnation of Jesus. Members of the Twelve Tribes of Israel denomination, for instance, reject the idea that Selassie was the Second Coming, arguing that that event has yet to occur. From this perspective, Selassie is perceived as a messenger or emissary of God rather than a manifestation of God himself. This attitude may be more pervasive among Rastas living in Africa itself, who are more familiar with the continent’s political problems. Rastas holding to this view sometimes regard the deification of Haile Selassie as naïve or ignorant; there are various Rastas who went from believing that Haile Selassie was both God incarnate and the Second Coming of Jesus to seeing him as something distinct.
On being crowned, Haile Selassie was given the title of “King of Kings and Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah”. Rastas use this title for Haile Selassie alongside others, such as “Almighty God”, “Judge and Avenger”, “King Alpha and Queen Omega”, “Returned Messiah”, “Elect of God”, and “Elect of Himself”. Rastas also view Haile Selassie as a symbol of their positive affirmation of Africa as a source of spiritual and cultural heritage.
During the 1960s, many Jamaican Rastas professed the belief that Haile Selassie would never die. The 1974 overthrow of Haile Selassie by the military Derg and his subsequent death in 1975 resulted in a crisis of faith for many Rastas. Some practitioners left the movement altogether. Others remained, and developed new strategies for dealing with the news. Some Rastas believed that Selassie did not really die and that claims to the contrary were Western misinformation. To bolster their argument, they pointed to the fact that no corpse had been produced; in reality, Haile Selassie’s body had been buried beneath a toilet in his palace, remaining undiscovered there until 1992. Another perspective within Rastafari acknowledged that Haile Selassie’s body had perished, but claimed that his inner essence survived as a spiritual force. A third response within the Rastafari community was that Selassie’s death was inconsequential as he had only been a “personification” of Jah rather than Jah himself.
During his life, Selassie described himself as a devout Christian. In a 1967 interview, Selassie was asked about the Rastas’ views about him being the Second Coming of Jesus, to which he responded that: “I have heard of this idea. I also met certain Rastafarians. I told them clearly that I am a man, that I am mortal, and that I will be replaced by the oncoming generation, and that they should never make a mistake in assuming or pretending that a human being is emanated from a deity.” His grandson Ermias Sahle Selassie has said that there is “no doubt that Haile Selassie did not encourage the Rastafari movement”. Critics of Rastafari has used this as evidence that Rasta theological beliefs are incorrect, however for some Rastas, Selassie’s denials are taken as evidence was that he was indeed the incarnation of God.
Afrocentrism, Babylon, and Zion
The eastern African nation of Ethiopia is given great prominence in Rasta doctrine
According to Clarke, Rastafari is “concerned above all else with black consciousness, with rediscovering the identity, personal and racial, of black people”. The Rastafari movement began among Afro-Jamaicans who wanted to reject the British imperial culture that dominated Jamaica while creating a new identity based on a re-appropriation of their African heritage. Rastas equate blackness with the African continent and thus endorse a form of Pan-Africanism.
Practitioners of Rastafari identify themselves with the ancient Israelites—God’s chosen people in the Old Testament—and believe that black Africans broadly or Rastas more specifically are either the descendants or reincarnations of this ancient people. This is similar to beliefs in Judaism, although many Rastas believe that modern Jews’ claims to be the descendants of the ancient Israelites are false. Rastas typically believe that black Africans are God’s chosen people, meaning that they made a deal with him and thus have a special responsibility. Rastafari espouses the view that the true identity of black Africans has been lost and needs to be reclaimed. In reclaiming this identity, Rastas believe, they will help to rid themselves of any feelings of inferiority.
There is no uniform Rasta view on race. Many Rastas endorse black supremacy, believing in the existence of a distinct black African race that is superior to other racial groups. This has opened the religion up to accusations of racism from its critics, including black Jamaicans. Cashmore noted that there was an “implicit potential” for racism in Rasta beliefs but that racism was not “intrinsic” to the religion. Some Rastas have acknowledged that there is racism in the movement, primarily against Europeans, Asians, and also against white European Rastas. Some Rasta sects reject the idea that a white European can ever be a legitimate Rasta. Others believe that an “African” identity is not inherently linked to black skin but rather is about whether an individual displays an African “attitude” or “spirit”.
Babylon and Zion
Rastafari teaches that the black African diaspora are exiles living in “Babylon”, a term applied to Western society. For Rastas, European colonialism and global capitalism are regarded as manifestations of Babylon, while police and soldiers are viewed as its agents. The term “Babylon” is adopted because of its Biblical associations. In the Old Testament, Babylon is the Mesopotamian city which conquered and deported the Israelites from their homeland between 597 and 586 BCE. In the New Testament, “Babylon” is used as a euphemism for the Roman Empire, which was regarded as acting in a destructive manner akin to the ancient Babylonians. Rastas view Babylon as being responsible for both the Atlantic slave trade which removed enslaved Africans from their continent and for the ongoing poverty facing the African diaspora. Rastas turn to scripture to explain the Atlantic slave trade. Rastas believe that the slavery, exile, and exploitation of black Africans was punishment for failing to live up to their status as Jah’s chosen people.
Rastas regard Babylon as the ultimate evil. They perceive the exile of the black African diaspora in Babylon as an experience of great suffering, with the term “suffering” having a significant place in Rasta discourse. Rastas seek to delegitimise and destroy Babylon, something often conveyed in the Rasta aphorism “Chant down Babylon”. Adopting a Pan-Africanist ethos, many Rastas have criticised the division of Africa into nation-states, regarding this as a Babylonian development, and are often hostile to Western resource extraction from the continent. Rastas often expect white-dominant society to dismiss their beliefs as false, and when this happens they see it as confirmation of the correctness of their faith.
A map of Ethiopia, the “Zion” of the Rastas
Rastas view “Zion” as an ideal to which they aspire. As with “Babylon”, this is again a term derived from the Bible, where it referred to an idealised Jerusalem, regarded as the City of God. Rastas use the term in reference either to Ethiopia or to Africa more widely, a land which has an almost mythological identity in Rasta discourse; many Rastas use the term “Ethiopia” synonymously with “Africa”. In doing so, Rastas reflect their desire to escape what they perceive as the domination and degradation that they experience in Babylon. During the first three decades of the Rastafari movement, it placed strong emphasis on the need for the African diaspora to be repatriated to Africa. To this end, various Rastas lobbied the Jamaican government and United Nations to oversee this resettlement process. Other Rastas organised their own transportation to the African continent. Critics of the movement have argued that the migration of the entire African diaspora to Africa is implausible, particularly as no African country would welcome this.
By the movement’s fourth decade, the desire for physical repatriation to Africa had declined among Rastas. This change was influenced by observation of the 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia. Rather, many Rastas saw the idea of returning to Africa in a metaphorical sense, entailing restoring their pride and self-confidence as people of black African descent. The term “liberation before repatriation” began to be used within the movement. Some Rastas seek to transform Western society so that they may more comfortably live within it rather than seeking to move to Africa. There are nevertheless many Rastas who continue to emphasise the need for physical resettlement of the African diaspora in Africa. Some Rastas living elsewhere in Africa see no need to migrate to Ethiopia specifically because they believe that all of Africa falls under the Biblical understanding of “Ethiopia”; thus, Rastas in Ghana for instance described themselves as already living within “Ethiopia”.
Salvation and paradise
Rastafari is a millenarianist movement, for it espouses the idea that the present age will come to an apocalyptic end. Many practitioners believe that on this Day of Judgement, Babylon will be overthrown, with Rastas being the chosen few who survive the upheaval. With Babylon destroyed, Rastas believe that humanity will be ushered into a “new age”. This is conceived as being a millennium of peace, justice, and happiness in which the righteous shall live in Africa, which will be a paradise. In the 1980s, Rastas believed that the Day of Judgment would happen around the year 2000. A common view in the Rasta community was that the world’s white people would wipe themselves out through nuclear war, with black Africans then ruling the world, something that they argue is prophesied in the Book of Daniel (2:31–32).
Rastas do not believe that there is a specific afterlife to which human individuals go following bodily death. They believe in the possibility of eternal life, and that only those who shun righteousness will actually die. One Rasta view is that those who are righteous are believed to undergo reincarnation, with an individual’s identity remaining throughout each of their incarnations. Barrett observed some Jamaican Rastas who believed that those practitioners who did die had not been faithful to Jah. He suggested that this attitude stemmed from the large numbers of young people that were then members of the movement, and who had thus seen only few Rastas die. In keeping with their views on death, Rastas eschew celebrating physical death and often avoid funerals, also repudiating the practice of ancestor veneration that is common among African traditional religions.
Morality, ethics, and gender roles
Most Rastas share a pair of fundamental moral principles known as the “two great commandments”: love of God and love of neighbour. Rastafari promotes the idea of “living naturally”, in accordance with what Rastas regard as nature’s laws. It endorses the idea that Africa is the “natural” abode of black Africans, a continent where they can live according to African culture and tradition and be themselves on a physical, emotional, and intellectual level. Practitioners believe that Westerners and Babylon have detached themselves from nature through technological development and thus have become debilitated, slothful, and decadent. Some Rastas express the view that they should adhere to what they regard as African laws rather than the laws of Babylon, thus defending their involvement in certain acts which may be illegal in the countries that they are living in.
Some Rastas have promoted activism as a means of achieving socio-political change, while others believe in awaiting change that will be brought about through divine intervention in human affairs. In Jamaica, Rastas typically do not vote, derogatorily dismissing politics as “politricks”. The Rasta tendency to believe that socio-political change is inevitable opens the religion up to the criticism from the political left that it encouraged adherents to do little or nothing to change the status quo. Other Rastas do engage in political activism; the Ghanaian Rasta singer-songwriter Rocky Dawuni for instance was involved in campaigns promoting democratic elections, while in Grenada, many Rastas joined the People’s Revolutionary Government which was formed in 1979.
Gender roles and sexuality
Rastafari promotes what it regards as the restoration of black manhood, believing that men in the African diaspora have been emasculated by Babylon. It espouses patriarchal principles, including the idea that women should submit to male leadership. External observers—including scholars like Cashmore and Edmonds—have claimed that Rastafari accords women an inferior position to men. Rastafari women usually accept this subordinate position and regard it as their duty to obey their men; the academic Maureen Rowe suggested that women were willing to join the religion despite its restrictions because they valued the life of structure and discipline it provided. Rasta discourse often presents women as morally weak and susceptible to deception by evil, and claims that they are impure while menstruating. Rastas legitimise these gender roles by citing Biblical passages, particularly those in the Book of Leviticus, and in the writings of Paul the Apostle.
The Rasta Shop, a store selling items associated with Rastafari in the U.S. state of Oregon
Rasta women usually wear clothing that covers their head and masks their body contours. Long skirts are usually worn rather than trousers, and women are expected to cover their head while praying. Rasta discourse insists this female dress code is necessary to prevent women attracting men and presents it as an antidote to the sexual objectification of women in Babylon. Rasta men are permitted to wear whatever they choose. Although men and women took part in early Rasta rituals alongside each other, from the late 1940s and 1950s a more radical movement within the Rasta community encouraged gender segregation for ceremonies. This was legitimised with the explanation that women were impure through menstruation and that their presence at the ceremonies would distract male participants.
As it existed in Jamaica, Rastafari did not promote monogamy. Rasta men are permitted multiple female sex partners, while women are expected to reserve their sexual activity for their one male partner. Marriage is not usually formalised through legal ceremonies but is a common law affair, although there are many Rastas who are legally married. Rasta men refer to their female partners as “queens”, or “empresses”, while the males in these relationships are known as “kingmen”. Rastafari places great importance on family life and the raising of children, with reproduction being encouraged. The religion emphasises the place of men in child-rearing, associating this with the recovery of African manhood. Women often work, sometimes while the man is left to raise the children at home. Rastafari typically rejects feminism, although since the 1970s there have been increasing numbers of Rasta women calling for greater gender equity within the Rastafari movement. The scholar Terisa E. Turner for instance encountered Kenyan feminists who were appropriating Rastafari and redefining its content to suit their political agenda. Some Rasta women have challenged gender norms by wearing their hair uncovered in public and donning trousers.
Both contraception and abortion are usually censured by Rastas, and a common claim in Rasta discourse is that these were inventions of Babylon created in an attempt to decrease the black African birth-rate. Rastas typically express hostile attitudes to homosexuality, regarding homosexuals as evil and unnatural; this attitude derives from references to same-sex sexual activity in the Bible. Homosexual Rastas probably conceal their sexual orientation because of these attitudes. Rastas typically see the growing acceptance of birth control and homosexuality in Western society as evidence of the degeneration of Babylon as it approaches its apocalyptic end.
Main article: Livity (spiritual concept)
Rastas refer to their cultural and religious practices as “livity”. Rastafari has no professional priesthood, with Rastas believing that there is no need for a priest to act as mediator between the worshipper and divinity. It nevertheless has “Elders”, an honorific title bestowed upon those with a good reputation among the community. Although respected figures, they do not necessarily have any administrative functions or responsibilities. When they do oversee ritual meetings, they are often responsible for helping to interpret current events in terms of Biblical scripture. Elders are often in communication with each other through a network.
A group of Rastas in Liberia celebrating Marcus Garvey’s birthday
The term “grounding” is used among Rastas to refer to the establishment of relationships between like-minded practitioners. Groundings often take place in a commune or yard, and are presided over by an elder. The elder is charged with keeping discipline in the group, and can ban certain individuals from attending. The number of participants can range from a handful to several hundred. Activities that take place at groundings include the playing of drums, chanting, the singing of hymns, and the recitation of poetry. Ganja, or cannabis, is often smoked. Most groundings contain only men, with women being excluded. Some Rasta women have established their own, all-female grounding circles.
One of the central activities at groundings is “reasoning“. This is a discussion among assembled Rastas about the religion’s principles and their relevance to current events. These discussions are supposed to be non-combative, although attendees can point out the fallacies in any arguments presented. Those assembled inform each other about the revelations that they have received through meditation and dream. Each contributor is supposed to push the boundaries of understanding until the entire group has gained greater insight into the topic under discussion. In meeting together with likeminded individuals, reasoning helps Rastas to reassure one another of the correctness of their beliefs. Rastafari meetings are opened and closed with prayers. These involve supplication of God, the supplication for the hungry, sick, and infants, calls for the destruction of the Rastas’ enemies, and then closes with statements of adoration.Princes shall come out of Egypt, Ethiopia shall stretch forth her hand unto God. Oh thou God of Ethiopia, thou God of divine majesty, thy spirit come within our hearts to dwell in the parts of righteousness. That the hungry be fed, the sick nourished, the aged protected, and the infant cared for. Teach us love and loyalty as it is in Zion.
— Opening passage of a common Rasta prayer
The largest groundings were known as “groundations” or “grounations” in the 1950s, although were subsequently re-termed “Nyabinghi Issemblies”. The term Nyabinghi is adopted from the name of a mythical African queen. Nyabinghi Issemblies are often held on dates associated with Ethiopia and Haile Selassie. These include Ethiopian Christmas (7 January), the day on which Haile Selassie visited Jamaica (21 April), Selassie’s birthday (23 July), Ethiopian New Year (11 September), and Selassie’s coronation day (2 November). Some Rastas also organise Nyabinghi Issemblies to mark Jamaica’s Emancipation Day (1 August) and Marcus Garvey‘s birthday (17 August).
Nyabinghi Issemblies typically take place in rural areas, being situated in the open air or in temporary structures—known as “temples” or “tabernacles”—which are specifically constructed for the purpose. Any elder seeking to sponsor a Nyabinghi Issembly must have approval from other elders to do so, and requires the adequate resources to organise such an event. The assembly usually lasts between three and seven days. During the daytime, those Rastas attending the event engage in food preparation, ganja smoking, and reasoning, while at night they focus on drumming and dancing around bonfires. Nyabinghi Issemblies often attract Rastas from a wide area, including from different countries. They establish and maintain a sense of solidarity among the Rasta community and cultivate a feeling of collective belonging. Unlike in many other religions, rites of passage play no role in Rastafari; on death, various Rastas have been given Christian funerals by their relatives, as there are no established Rasta funereal rites.
Use of cannabis
See also: Cannabis and religion
The principle ritual of Rastafari is the smoking of ganja, or cannabis. Among the names that Rastas give to the plant are callie, Iley, “the herb”, “the holy herb”, “the grass”, and “the weed”. In addition to smoking it, Rastas also ingest cannabis in a tea, as a spice in cooking, and as an ingredient in medicine. Cannabis is usually smoked during groundings; some Rastas smoke it almost all of the time, a view that other practitioners regard as excessive. However, not all Rastas use ganja, explaining that they have already achieved a higher level of consciousness and thus do not require it.
A flowering cannabis plant; the smoking of its leaves is considered a Biblically-sanctioned sacrament by Rastas
Rastas argue that the use of ganja is promoted in the Bible, specifically in Genesis 1:29, Psalms 18:8, and Revelation 22:2. They regard it as having healing properties, eulogise it for inducing feelings of “peace and love”, and claim that it cultivates a form of personal introspection that allows the smoker to discover their inner divinity, or “InI consciousness”. Some Rastas express the view that cannabis smoke serves as an incense that counteracts perceived immoral practices in society.
Rastas typically smoke cannabis through a form of large cigarette known as a spliff. This is often rolled together while a prayer is offered to Jah; only once this is completed is the spliff lit and smoked. At other times, cannabis is smoked in a water pipe referred to as a “chalice”: styles include kutchies, chillums, and steamers. The pipe is passed in a counter-clockwise direction around the assembled circle of Rastas.
There are various methods of transmission that might explain how cannabis smoking came to be part of Rastafari. By the 8th century, Arab traders had introduced cannabis to Central and Southern Africa. In the 19th century, enslaved Bakongo people arrived in Jamaica, where they established the religion of Kumina. In Kumina, cannabis was smoked during religious ceremonies in the belief that it facilitated possession by ancestral spirits. The religion was largely practiced in south-east Jamaica’s Saint Thomas Parish, where a prominent early Rasta, Leonard Howell, lived while he was developing many of Rastafari’s beliefs and practices; it may have been through Kumina that cannabis became part of Rastafari. A second possible source was the use of cannabis in Hindu rituals. Hindu migrants arrived in Jamaica as indentured servants from British India between 1834 and 1917, and brought cannabis with them. A Jamaican Hindu priest, Laloo, was one of Howell’s spiritual advisors, and may have influenced his adoption of ganja.
The adoption of cannabis may also have been influenced by the widespread medicinal and recreational use of cannabis among Afro-Jamaicans in the early 20th century. Early Rastafarians may have taken an element of Jamaican culture which they associated with their peasant past and the rejection of capitalism and sanctified it by according it Biblical correlates. In many countries, cannabis is illegal and by using it, Rastas protest the rules and regulations of Babylon. Rastas have also advocated for the legalisation of cannabis.
A stylized Rastafari motif, depicting the Lion of Judah
Rastafari music developed at reasoning sessions, where drumming, chanting, and dancing are all present. Rasta music is performed to praise and commune with Jah, and to reaffirm the rejection of Babylon. Rastas believe that their music has healing properties, with the ability to cure colds, fevers, and headaches. Many of these songs are sung to the tune of older Christian hymns, but others are original Rasta creations.
The bass-line of Rasta music is provided by the akete, a three-drum set, which is accompanied by percussion instruments like rattles and tambourines. A syncopated rhythm is then provided by the fundeh drum. In addition, a peta drum improvises over the rhythm. The different components of the music are regarded as displaying different symbolism; the bassline symbolises blows against Babylon, while the lighter beats denote hope for the future.
As Rastafari developed, popular music became its chief communicative medium. During the 1950s, ska was a popular musical style in Jamaica, and although its protests against social and political conditions were mild, it gave early expression to Rasta socio-political ideology. Particularly prominent in the connection between Rastafari and ska were the musicians Count Ossie and Don Drummond. Ossie was a drummer who believed that black people needed to develop their own style of music; he was heavily influenced by Kumina and Burru, two drumming styles developed by African-Jamaicans. Ossie subsequently popularised this new Rastafari ritual music by playing at various groundings and groundations around Jamaica, with songs like “Another Moses” and “Babylon Gone” reflecting Rasta influence. Rasta themes also appeared in Drummond’s work, with songs such as “Reincarnation” and “Tribute to Marcus Garvey”.
1968 saw the development of reggae in Jamaica, a musical style typified by slower, heavier rhythms than ska and the increased use of patois. Although like calypso, reggae was a medium for social commentary, it demonstrated a wider use of radical political and Rasta themes than were previously present in Jamaican popular music. Reggae artists incorporated Rasta ritual rhythms, and also adopted Rasta chants, language, motifs, and social critiques. Songs like The Wailers‘ “African Herbsman” and Peter Tosh‘s “Legalize It” referenced cannabis use, while tracks like The Melodians‘ “Rivers of Babylon” and Junior Byles‘ “Beat Down Babylon” referenced Rasta beliefs in Babylon. Reggae gained widespread international popularity during the mid-1970s, coming to be viewed as music of the oppressed by black people in many different countries. Many Rastas grew critical of reggae, believing that it had commercialised their religion. Although reggae contains much Rastafari symbolism, and the two are widely associated, the connection is often exaggerated by non-Rastas. Most Rastas do not listen to reggae music. Out of reggae came dub music; dub artists often employ Rastafari terminology, even when not Rastas themselves.
Language and symbolism
Main article: Rastafari vocabulary
In the 1940s, a distinct form of Rasta language, often known as “dreadtalk”, developed among Jamaican practitioners. Rastas typically regard words as having an intrinsic power, with Rastafari language reflecting Rastas’ own experiences, as well as fostering a group identity and cultivating particular values. Rastas seek to avoid language that contributes to servility, self-degradation, and the objectification of the person. They believe that by formulating their own language they are launching an ideological attack on the integrity of the English language, which they view as a tool of Babylon. The use of this language helps Rastas distinguish themselves from non-Rastas, for whom—according to Barrett—Rasta rhetoric can be “meaningless babbling”.
Rastas regularly use the three colours of the Ethiopian flag for their movement, although often add black to this tricolour, symbolising the black skin of the African people
Rastas make wide use of the pronoun “I”. The use of this word denotes the Rasta view that the self is divine. It also reminds each Rasta that they are a human being, not a slave, and that they have value, worth, and dignity as a human being. For instance, Rastas use “I” in place of “me”, “I and I” in place of “we”, “I-ceive” in place of “receive”, “I-sire” in place of “desire”, “I-rate” in place of “create”, and “I-men” in place of “Amen“. Rastas refer to this process as “InI Consciousness” or “Isciousness”. Rastas typically refer to Haile Selaisse as “Haile Selassie I”, thus indicating their belief in his divinity. Rastas also typically believe that the phonetics of a word should be linked to its meaning. For instance, Rastas often use the word “downpression” in place of “oppression” because oppression bears down on people rather than lifting them up, with “up” being phonetically akin to the “opp-“. Similarly, they often favour “livicate” over “dedicate” because “ded-” is phonetically akin to the word “dead”. In its early decades, Rastas often said “Peace and Love” as a greeting, although the use of this declined as the religion aged.
Rastas often make use of the colours red, black, green, and gold. Red, gold, and green were used in the Ethiopian flag while, prior to the development of Rastafari, the Jamaican black nationalist activist Marcus Garvey had used red, green, and black as the colours for his United Negro Improvement Association. According to Garvey, the red symbolised the blood of martyrs, the black symbolised the skin of Africans, and the green represented the vegetation of the land. Many Rastas endorse these associations to the colours. The colour gold is often included alongside Garvey’s three colours; it has been adopted from the Jamaican flag, and is often interpreted as symbolising the minerals and raw materials which constitute Africa’s wealth. Rastas often paint these colours onto their buildings, vehicles, kiosks, and other items, or display them on their clothing, helping to demarcate Rastas from non-Rastas and allowing adherents to recognise their co-religionists. As well as being used by Rastas, the colour set has also been adopted by Pan-Africanists more broadly, who use it to display their identification with Afrocentricity; for this reason it was adopted on the flags of many post-independence African states. Rastas often accompany the use of these three or four colours with the image of the Lion of Judah, also adopted from the Ethiopian flag and symbolizing Haile Selassie.
Main article: Ital
An ital breakfast; ackee, plantain, boiled food, breadfruit, and mango-pineapple juice
Rastas seek to produce food “naturally”, eating what they call ital, or “natural” food. This is often produced organically, and locally. Most Rastas adhere to the dietary laws outlined in the Book of Leviticus, and thus avoid eating pork or crustaceans. Other Rastas remain totally vegetarian, and also avoid the addition of any additives, including sugar and salt, to their food. Rasta dietary practices have come under ridicule from non-Rastas; in Ghana for example, where food traditionally includes a high meat content, the Rastas’ emphasis on vegetable produce has led to the joke that they “eat like sheep and goats”. In Jamaica, Rasta practitioners have commercialised ital food, for instance by selling fruit juices prepared according to Rasta custom.
Rastafarians typically avoid food produced by non-Rastas or from unknown sources. Rasta men refuse to eat food prepared by a woman while she is menstruating, and some will avoid any food prepared by a woman at any time. Rastas also generally avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and hard drugs such as heroin and cocaine.
A Rasta man with tuff dreads
Rastas use their physical appearance as a means of visually demarcating themselves from non-Rastas. Male practitioners will often grow long beards. However, it is the formation of hair into dreadlocks that is one of the most recognisable Rasta symbols. Rastas believe that dreadlocks are promoted in the Bible, specifically in the Book of Numbers (6: 5–6), and regard them as a symbol of strength linked to the hair of the Biblical figure of Samson. They argue that their dreadlocks mark a covenant that they have made with Jah, and reflect their commitment to the idea of ‘naturalness’. They also perceive the wearing of dreads as a symbolic rejection of Babylon and a refusal to conform to its norms regarding grooming aesthetics. Rastas are often critical of black people who straighten their hair, believing that it is an attempt to imitate white European hair and thus reflects alienation from a person’s African identity. Sometimes this dreadlocked hair is then shaped and styled, often inspired by a lion’s mane symbolising Haile Selassie, who is regarded as “the Conquering Lion of Judah”.
Some Rastas do not wear their hair in dreadlocks; within the religion they are often termed “cleanface” Rastas, with those wearing dreadlocked hair often called “locksmen”. Some Rastas have also joined the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the Christian organisation to which Haile Selassie belonged, and these individuals are forbidden from putting their hair in deadlocks by the Church. In reference to Rasta hairstyles, Rastas often refer to non-Rastas as “baldheads”, while those who are new to Rastafari and who have only just started to grow their hair into dreads are known as “nubbies”. Members of the Bobo Ashanti sect of Rastas conceal their dreadlocks within turbans, while some Rastas tuck their dreads under a tam headdress; these are typically coloured green, red, black, and yellow to symbolise allegiance and identification with Ethiopia. Dreadlocks and Rastafari-inspired clothing have also been worn for aesthetic reasons by non-Rastas. For instance, many reggae musicians who do not adhere to the Rastafari religion wear their hair in dreads.
A Rasta man wearing a rastacap in Jamaica
From the beginning of the Rastafari movement in the 1930s, adherents typically grew beards and tall hair, perhaps in imitation of Haile Selassie. The wearing of hair as dreadlocks then emerged as a Rasta practice in the 1940s; there were firm debates within the movement as to whether dreadlocks should be worn or not, with proponents of the style becoming dominant. Within the oral culture of the movement, there are various different claims as to how this practice was adopted. One claim is that it was adopted in imitation of certain African nations, such as the Maasai, Somalis, or Oromo, or that it was inspired by the hairstyles worn by some of those involved in the anti-colonialist Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya. An alternative explanation is that it was inspired by the hairstyles of the Hindu sadhus.
The wearing of dreadlocks has contributed to negative views of Rastafari among non-Rastas, many of whom regard it as wild and unattractive. Dreadlocks remain socially stigmatised in many societies; in Ghana for example, they are often associated with the homeless mentally ill, with such associations of marginality extending onto Ghanaian Rastas. In Jamaica during the mid-20th century, teachers and police officers used to cut off the dreads of Rastas. In the United States, several public schools and workplaces have lost lawsuits as the result of banning locks. In 2009 a Rasta group settled a federal lawsuit with the Grand Central Partnership in New York City, allowing them to wear their locks in ponytails, rather than be forced to “painfully tuck in their long hair” in their uniform caps.
The Rastafari movement developed out of the legacy of the Atlantic slave trade, in which over ten million Africans were enslaved and transported from Africa to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. Here, they were sold to European planters and forced to work on the plantations. Around a third of these transported Africans were relocated in the Caribbean, with under 700,000 being settled in Jamaica. In 1834, slavery in Jamaica was abolished after the British government passed the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Racial prejudice nevertheless remained prevalent across Jamaican society, with the overwhelming majority of Jamaica’s legislative council remaining white throughout the nineteenth century, and those of African descent being treated as second-class citizens.
Christian Revivalism was a key influence on Rastafari. Many Afro-Jamaicans joined Christian churches during the Great Revival of 1860–61. They brought with them many inherited African beliefs and rituals, which syncretised with Christianity in various ways and to varying degrees. Some of the new religions that emerged, such as Pukkumina, remained heavily based on traditional African religion, while others, like Revival Zion, were more fully Christian. The majority of these groups practiced spiritual healing and incorporated drumming and chanting, counselling, and spirit possession into their structures. Increasing numbers of Pentecostal missionaries from the United States arrived in Jamaica during the early twentieth century, reaching a climax in the 1920s. They provided a way for black Jamaicans—who continued to live with the social memory of enslavement and who were denied any substantial participation in Jamaica’s political institutions—to express their hopes, fears, and aspirations.
Ethiopianism, Back to Africa, and Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey, a prominent black nationalist theorist who heavily influenced Rastafari and is regarded as a prophet by many Rastas
According to Edmonds, Rastafari emerged from “the convergence of several religious, cultural, and intellectual streams”, while fellow scholar Wigmoore Francis described it as owing much of its self-understanding to “intellectual and conceptual frameworks” dating from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Both Ethiopianism and the Back to Africa ethos remain “fundamental ingredients of Rastafarian ideology”. These two movements predated Rastafari and can be traced back to the eighteenth century.
In the nineteenth century, there were growing calls for the African diaspora located in Western Europe and the Americas to be resettled in Africa. In that century, many members of the African diaspora were moved to Sierra Leone and Liberia. Based in Liberia, the black Christian preacher Edward Wilmot Blyden began promoting African pride and the preservation of African tradition, customs, and institutions. Blyden sought to promote a form of Christianity that was suited to the African context, and believed that black people had to acquire their own historical knowledge about themselves. The idea of the African diaspora’s return to Africa was given impetus by the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 as a nation-state for the Jewish diaspora to return to.
Also spreading through Africa was Ethiopianism, a movement that accorded special status to the east African nation of Ethiopia because it was mentioned in various Biblical passages. For adherents of Ethiopianism, “Ethiopia” was regarded as a synonym of Africa as a whole. Across the continent, although particularly in South Africa, Christian churches were established that referred to themselves as “Ethiopian”; these groups were at the forefront of the burgeoning African nationalist movement that sought liberation from European colonial rule.
Of significant influence on Rastafari was the Jamaican-born activist Marcus Garvey, who spent much of his adult life in the United States and United Kingdom. Garvey supported the idea of global racial separatism and rejected the idea that black people of African descent living in the Americas should campaign for their civil rights; instead he believed that they should migrate en masse back to Africa. His ideas were opposed by many blacks in the Americas and he experienced hostility from African-American civil rights activists like W. E. B. Du Bois. He also faced opposition from the government of Liberia, which did not want millions of unskilled migrants arriving on its shores. As a mass movement, Garveyism declined in the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A rumour later spread that in 1916, Garvey had called on his supporters to “look to Africa” for the crowning of a black king; this quote was never verified. Soumahoro noted that this statement was “legendary”. Rather, Garvey was critical of Haile Selassie for leaving Ethiopia at the time of the Italian Fascist occupation, describing the king as “a great coward” who rules a “country where black men are chained and flogged.” Rastafari does not promote all of the views that Garvey espoused, but nevertheless shares many of the same perspectives, with many Rastas regarding Garvey as a prophet. According to Soumahoro, Rastafari “emerged from the socio-political ferment inaugurated by Marcus Garvey”, while for Cashmore, Garvey was the “most important” precursor of the Rastafari movement.
Haile Selassie and the early Rastas: 1930–1949
Haile Selassie was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930. A number of Jamaica’s Christian clergymen claimed that Selassie’s coronation was evidence that he was the black messiah that they believed was prophesied in the Book of Revelation (5:2–5; 19:16), the Book of Daniel (7:3), and the Book of Psalms (68:31). Over the following years, a number of street preachers—most notably Leonard Howell, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds, and Joseph Hibbert—began promoting the idea that Haile Selassie was the returned Jesus. These preachers began promoting this idea within Kingston, and soon the message spread throughout 1930s Jamaica. Clarke stated that “to all intents and purposes this was the beginning” of the Rastafari movement.
Emperor Haile Selassie, considered by many Rastas to be the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
Howell has been described as the “leading figure” in the early Rastafari movement. Howell preached that black Africans were superior to white Europeans and that Afro-Jamaicans should owe their allegiance to Haile Selassie rather than to George V, King of Great Britain and Ireland. The island’s British authorities arrested him and charged him with sedition, resulting in a two-year imprisonment. Following his release, Howell established the Ethiopian Salvation Society and in 1939 created a Rasta community known as Pinnacle, in St Catherine. The community attracted between 500 and 2000 people, who were largely self-sufficient. Police feared that Howell was training his followers for an armed rebellion and were angered that it was producing marijuana for sale among the wider community. They raided the community on several occasions and Howell was imprisoned for a further two years. On his release he returned to Pinnacle, but the police continued with their raids and shut down the community in 1954; Howell himself was committed to a mental hospital.
In 1936, Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, with Haile Selassie going into exile. The event brought international condemnation and growing sympathy for the Ethiopian cause. In 1937, Selassie then created the Ethiopian World Federation, which established a branch in Jamaica in 1938. In 1941, the Italians were driven out of Ethiopia and Selassie returned. For many Rastas, this event was interpreted as the fulfilment of an event described in the Book of Revelation (19:11–19).
Growing visibility: 1950–1969
Rastafari’s main appeal was among the lower classes of Jamaican society. For its first thirty years, Rastafari was in a conflictual relationship with the Jamaican authorities. Jamaica’s Rastas expressed contempt for many aspects of the island’s society, viewing the government, police, bureaucracy, professional classes, and established churches as instruments of Babylon. Relations between practitioners and the police were strained, with Rastas often being arrested for cannabis possession. During the 1950s the movement grew rapidly in Jamaica itself and also spread to other Caribbean islands, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Reggae musician Bob Marley did much to raise international awareness of the Rastafari movement
In the 1940s and 1950s, a more militant brand of Rastafari emerged. The vanguard of this was the House of Youth Black Faith, a group whose members were largely based in West Kingston. Backlash against the Rastas grew after a practitioner of the religion allegedly killed a woman in 1957. In March 1958, the first Rastafarian Universal Convention was held in Back-o-Wall, Kingston. Following the event, militant Rastas unsuccessfully tried to capture the city in the name of Haile Selassie. Later that year they tried again in Spanish Town. The increasing militancy of some Rastas resulted in growing alarm about the religion in Jamaica. According to Cashmore, the Rastas became “folk devils” in Jamaican society. In 1959, the self-declared prophet and founder of the African Reform Church, Claudius Henry, sold thousands of black Jamaicans, including many Rastas, tickets for a ship that he claimed would take them to Africa. The ship never arrived and Henry was charged with fraud. In 1960 he was sentenced to six years imprisonment for conspiring to overthrow the government. Henry’s son was accused of being part of a paramilitary cell and executed, confirming public fears about Rasta violence. One of the most prominent clashes between Rastas and law enforcement was the Coral Gardens incident of 1963. Clamping down on the Rasta movement, in 1964 the island’s government implemented tougher laws surrounding marijuana use.
At the invite of Jamaica’s government, Haile Selassie visited the island for the first time in August 1966, with crowds of Rastas assembling to meet him at the airport. The event was the high point for many of the religion’s members. Over the course of the 1960s, Jamaica’s Rasta community underwent a process of routinization, with the late 1960s witnessing the launch of the first official Rastafarian newspaper, the Rastafarian Movement Association‘s Rasta Voice. The decade also saw Rastafari develop in increasingly complex ways. During that decade, some Rastas began to reinterpret the idea that salvation required a physical return to Africa, instead interpreting salvation as coming through a process of mental decolonisation that embraced African approaches to life.
Whereas its membership had previously come predominantly from poorer sectors of Jamaican society, in the 1960s Rastafari began to attract support from more privileged groups like students and professional musicians. The foremost group emphasising this approach were the Twelve Tribes of Israel, whose members came to be known as “Uptown Rastas”. Among those attracted to Rastafari in this decade were middle-class intellectuals like Leahcim Semaj, who called for the religious community to place greater emphasis on scholarly social theory as a method of achieving change. Although some Jamaican Rastas were critical of him, many came under the influence of the Guyanese black nationalist academic Walter Rodney, who lectured to their community in 1968 before publishing his thoughts as the pamphlet Groundings. Like Rodney, many Jamaican Rastas were influenced by the U.S.-based Black Power movement. After Black Power declined following the deaths of prominent exponents such as Malcolm X, Michael X, and George Jackson, Rastafari filled the vacuum it left for many black youth.
International spread and decline: 1970–present
A Rasta vendor plies his wares in the U.S. city of Washington D.C. in 2013
In the mid-1970s, reggae’s international popularity exploded. The most successful reggae artist was Bob Marley, who—according to Cashmore—”more than any other individual, was responsible for introducing Rastafarian themes, concepts and demands to a truly universal audience”. Reggae’s popularity led to a growth in “pseudo-Rastafarians”, individuals who listened to reggae and wore Rasta clothing but did not share its belief system. Many Rastas were angered by this, believing it commercialised their religion.
Through reggae, Rasta musicians became increasingly important in Jamaica’s political life during the 1970s. In his desire to move towards democratic socialism, Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley employed some Rasta imagery, and also courted and obtained support from Marley and other reggae musicians, thus helping to bolster his popularity with the electorate. Manley described Rastas as a “beautiful and remarkable people”, and carried a cane, the “rod of correction”, which he claimed was a gift from Haile Selassie. Following Manley’s example, Jamaican political groups increasingly employed Rasta language, symbols, and reggae references in their campaigns, while Rasta symbols became increasingly mainstream in Jamaican society. This helped to confer greater legitimacy on Rastafari, with reggae and Rasta imagery being increasingly presented as a core part of Jamaica’s cultural heritage for the marketing purposes of the growing tourist industry.
Enthusiasm for Rastafari was likely dampened by the death of Haile Selassie in 1975 and that of Marley in 1981. During the 1980s, the number of Rastas in Jamaica declined, with Pentecostal and other Charismatic Christian groups proving more successful at attracting young recruits. Several publicly prominent Rastas converted to Christianity, and two of those who did so—Judy Mowatt and Tommy Cowan—maintained that Marley had converted from Rastafari to Christianity, in the form of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, during his final days. The significance of Rastafari messages in reggae also declined with the growing popularity of dancehall, a Jamaican musical genre that typically foregrounded lyrical themes of hyper-masculinity, violence, and sexual activity rather than religious symbolism. However, in the 1980s, a Rasta practitioner, Barbara Makeda Blake Hannah, was appointed a Senator in the Jamaican Parliament.
The mid-1990s saw a revival of Rastafari-focused reggae associated with musicians like Anthony B, Buju Banton, Luciano, Sizzla, and Capleton. From the 1990s, Jamaica also witnessed the growth of organised political activity within the Rasta community, seen for instance through campaigns for the legalisation of marijuana and the creation of political parties like the Jamaican Alliance Movement and the Imperial Ethiopian World Federation Incorporated Political Party, none of which attained more than minimal electoral support.
Rastafari is not a homogeneous movement and has no single administrative structure, nor any single leader. Rastas avoid centralised and hierarchical structures because they do not want to replicate the structures of Babylon and because their religion’s ultra-individualistic ethos places emphasis on inner divinity. The structure of Rastafari groups is less like those of Christian denominations and is instead akin to the cellular structure of other African diasporic traditions like Haitian Vodou, Cuban Santería, and Jamaica’s Revival Zion. Since the 1970s, there have been attempts to unify all Rastas, namely through the establishment of the Rastafari Movement Association, which sought political mobilisation. In 1982, the first international assembly of Rastafari groups took place in Toronto, Canada. This and subsequent international conferences, assemblies, and workshops have helped to cement global networks and cultivate an international community of Rasta practitioners.
Mansions of Rastafari
Main article: Mansions of Rastafari
Sub-divisions of Rastafari are often referred to as “houses” or “mansions”, in keeping with a passage from the Gospel of John (14:2): as translated in the King James Bible, Jesus states “In my father’s house are many mansions”. The three most prominent branches are the House of Nyabinghi, the Bobo Ashanti, and the Twelve Tribes of Israel, although other important groups include the Church of Haile Selassie I, Inc., and the Fulfilled Rastafari.
Probably the largest Rastafari group, the House of Nyabinghi is an aggregate of more traditional and militant Rastas who seek to retain the movement close to the way in which it existed during the 1940s. They stress the idea that Haile Selassie was Jah and the reincarnation of Jesus. The wearing of dreadlocks is regarded as indispensable and patriarchal gender roles are strongly emphasised, while, according to Cashmore, they are “vehemently anti-white”. Nyabinghi Rastas refuse to compromise with Babylon, and are often critical of reggae musicians like Marley, whom they regard as having collaborated with the commercial music industry.
The Bobo Ashanti sect was founded in Jamaica by Emanuel Charles Edwards through the establishment of his Ethiopia Africa Black International Congress (EABIC) in 1958. The group established a commune in Bull Bay, where they were led by Edwards until his 1994 death. The group hold to a highly rigid ethos. Edwards advocated the idea of a new trinity, with Haile Selassie as the living God, himself as the Christ, and Garvey as the prophet. Male members are divided into two categories: the “priests” who conduct religious services and the “prophets” who take place in reasoning sessions. Women are regarded as impure because of menstruation and childbirth, and so are not permitted to cook for men. The group teaches that black Africans are God’s chosen people and are superior to white Europeans, with members often refusing to associate with white people. Bobo Ashanti Rastas are recognisable by their long, flowing robes and turbans.
The headquarters of the Twelve Tribes of Israel organisation in Shashamane, Ethiopia
The Twelve Tribes of Israel sect was founded in 1968 in Kingston by Vernon Carrington. He proclaimed himself the reincarnation of the Old Testament prophet Gad and his followers call him “Prophet Gad”, “Brother Gad”, or “Gadman”. It is commonly regarded as the most liberal form of Rastafari and the closest to Christianity; some Rastas regard it as being heretical. Practitioners are often dubbed “Christian Rastas” because they believe Jesus is the only saviour; Haile Selassie is accorded importance, but is not viewed as the second coming of Jesus. The group divides its members into twelve groups according to which Hebrew calendar month they were born; each month is associated with a particular colour, body part, and mental function. Maintaining dreadlocks and an ital diet are considered commendable but not essential, while adherents are called upon to read a chapter of the Bible each day.
The Twelve Tribes peaked in popularity during the 1970s, when it attracted artists, musicians, and many middle-class followers, resulting in the term “middle-class Rastas” and “uptown Rastas” being applied to members of the group. Marley was one such of these musicians belonging to the Twelve Tribes. Carrington died in 2005, since which time the Twelve Tribes of Israel have been led by an executive council. As of 2010, it was recorded as being the largest of the centralized Rasta groups. It remains headquartered in Kingston, although has followers outside Jamaica; it was responsible for establishing the Rasta community in Shashame, Ethiopia.
The Church of Haile Selassie, Inc was founded by Abuna Foxe, and operated much like a mainstream Christian church, with a hierarchy of functionaries, weekly services, and Sunday schools. In adopting this broad approach, the Church seeks to develop Rastafari’s respectability in wider society. Fulfilled Rastafari is a multi-ethnic movement that has spread in popularity during the twenty-first century, in large part through the Internet. The Fulfilled Rastafari group accept Haile Selassie’s statements that he was a man and that he was a devout Christian, and so place emphasis on worshipping Jesus through the example set forth by Haile Selassie. The wearing of dreadlocks and the adherence to an ital diet are considered issues up to the individual.
Born in the ghettos of Kingston, Jamaica, the Rastafarian movement has captured the imagination of thousands of black youth, and some white youth, throughout Jamaica, the Caribbean, Britain, France, and other countries in Western Europe and North America. It is also to be found in smaller numbers in parts of Africa—for example, in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Senegal—and in Australia and New Zealand, particularly among the Maori.
As of 2012, there were an estimated 700,000 to 1 million Rastas worldwide. They can be found in many different regions, including most of the world’s major population centers. Rastafari’s influence on wider society has been more substantial than its numerical size, particularly in fostering a racial, political, and cultural consciousness among the African diaspora, Africans themselves, and other dominated communities across the world. Men dominate Rastafari. In its early years, most of its followers were men, and the women who did adhere to it tended to remain in the background. This picture of Rastafari’s demographics has been confirmed by ethnographic studies conducted in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
The Rasta message resonates with many people who feel marginalised and alienated by the values and institutions of their society. Internationally, it has proved most popular among the poor and among marginalised youth. In valorising Africa and blackness, Rastafari provides a positive identity for youth in the African diaspora by allowing them to psychologically reject their social stigmatisation. It then provides these disaffected people with the discursive stance from which they can challenge capitalism and consumerism, providing them with symbols of resistance and defiance. Cashmore expressed the view that “whenever there are black people who sense an injust disparity between their own material conditions and those of the whites who surround them and tend to control major social institutions, the Rasta messages have relevance.”
Conversion and deconversion
Rastafari is a non-missionary religion. However, elders from Jamaica often go “trodding” to instruct new converts in the fundamentals of the religion. On researching English Rastas during the 1970s, Cashmore noted that they had not converted instantaneously, but rather had undergone “a process of drift” through which they gradually adopted Rasta beliefs and practices, resulting in their ultimate acceptance of Haile Selassie’s central importance. Rastas often claim that—rather than converting to the religion—they were actually always a Rasta and that their embrace of its beliefs was merely the realisation of this. There is no formal ritual carried out to mark an individual’s entry into the Rastafari movement. Rastas regard themselves as an exclusive and elite community, membership of which is restricted to those who have the “insight” to recognise Haile Selassie’s importance. Practitioners thus often regard themselves as the “enlightened ones” who have “seen the light”. Many see no point in establishing good relations with non-Rastas, believing that the latter will never accept Rastafari doctrine as truth.
Some Rastas have left the religion. Clarke noted that among British Rastas, some returned to Pentecostalism and other forms of Christianity, while others embraced Islam or no religion. Some English ex-Rastas described disillusionment when the societal transformation promised by Rastafari failed to appear, while others felt that while Rastafari would be appropriate for agrarian communities in Africa and the Caribbean, it was not suited to industrialised British society. Some experienced disillusionment after developing the view that Haile Selassie had been an oppressive leader of the Ethiopian people. Cashmore found that some British Rastas who had more militant views left the religion after finding its focus on reasoning and music insufficient for the struggle against white domination and racism.
Rastafari has spread to many areas of the world and adapted into many localised variants. It has spread primarily in Anglophone regions and countries, largely because reggae music has primarily been produced in the English language. It is thus most commonly found in the Anglophone Caribbean, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, and Anglophone parts of Africa.
Jamaica and the Americas
A Rastafari man in Jamaica.
Barrett described Rastafari as “the largest, most identifiable, indigenous movement in Jamaica.” In the mid-1980s, there were approximately 70,000 members and sympathisers of Rastafari in Jamaica. The majority of them were male, working-class, former Christians aged between 18 and 40. In the 2011 Jamaican census, 29,026 individuals identified as Rastas. Jamaica’s Rastas were initially entirely from the Afro-Jamaican majority, and although most remain Afro-Jamaican, Rastafari has also gained members from the island’s Chinese, Indian, Afro-Chinese, Afro-Jewish, mulatto, and white minorities. Until 1965 the vast majority were from the lower classes, although it has since attracted many middle-class members; by the 1980s there were Jamaican Rastas working as lawyers and university professors. Jamaica is often valorised by Rastas as the fountain-head of their faith, and many Rastas living elsewhere travel to the island on pilgrimage.
Through reggae’s popularity, Rastafari spread across the eastern Caribbean during the 1970s, where its ideas complemented the anti-colonial and Afrocentric views prevalent in countries like Trinidad, Grenada, Dominica, and St Vincent. In these countries, the early Rastas often engaged in cultural and political movements to a greater extent than their Jamaican counterparts had. Various Rastas were involved in Grenada’s 1979 New Jewel Movement and were given positions in the Grenadine government until it was overthrown and replaced following the U.S. invasion of 1983. Although Fidel Castro‘s Marxist–Leninist government generally discouraged foreign influences, Rastafari was introduced to Cuba alongside reggae in the 1970s. Foreign Rastas studying in Cuba during the 1990s connected with its reggae scene and helped to further ground it in Rasta beliefs. In Cuba, most Rastas have been male and from the Afro-Cuban population.
Rastafari was introduced to the United States and Canada with the migration of Jamaicans to continental North America in the 1960s and 1970s. American police were often suspicious of Rastas and regarded Rastafari as a criminal sub-culture. Rastafari also attracted converts from within several Native American communities. In Latin America, small communities of Rastas have also established in Brazil, Panama, and Nicaragua.
Some Rastas in the African diaspora have followed through with their beliefs about resettlement in Africa, with Ghana and Nigeria being particularly favoured. Caribbean Rastas arrived in Ghana during the 1960s, encouraged by its first post-independence president, Kwame Nkrumah, while some native Ghanaians also converted to the religion. The largest congregation of Rastas has been in southern parts of Ghana, around Accra, Tema, and the Cape Coast, although Rasta communities also exist in the Muslim-majority area of northern Ghana. The Rasta migrants’ wearing of dreadlocks was akin to that of the native fetish priests, which may have assisted the presentation of these Rastas as having authentic African roots in Ghanaian society. However, Ghanaian Rastas have complained of social ostracism and prosecution for cannabis possession, while non-Rastas in often consider them to be “drop-outs”, “too Western”, and “not African enough”.
A Rasta street vendor in South Africa’s Eastern Cape
In the 1960s, a Rasta settlement was established in Shashamane, Ethiopia, on land made available by Haile Selassie’s Ethiopian World Federation. The community faced many problems; 500 acres were confiscated by the Marxist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam. There were also conflicts with local Ethiopians, who largely regarded the incoming Rastas, and their Ethiopia-born children, as foreigners. The Shashamane community peaked at a population of 2,000, although subsequently declined to around 200.
By the early 1990s, a Rasta community was present in Nairobi, Kenya, whose approach to the religion was informed both by reggae and by traditional Kikuyu religion. Rastafari groups have also appeared in Zimbabwe, and in South Africa; in 2008, there were at least 12,000 Rastas in the country. At an African Union/Caribbean Diaspora conference in South Africa in 2005, a statement was released characterising Rastafari as a force for integration of Africa and the African diaspora.
The poet Benjamin Zephaniah is a prominent British Rasta
During the 1950s and 1960s, Rastas were among the thousands of Caribbean migrants settling in the United Kingdom. In 1955, a short-lived Rasta group was established in Brixton, South London, and by the latter part of the 1950s, a Rasta community had settled in the Notting Hill area of Northwest London. By the late 1960s, Rastafari had attracted converts from the second-generation of British Caribbean people, offering an outlet for the economic hardship, racial discrimination, and social isolation that many faced. It spread among the black working-classes not just of London, but also in Birmingham, Leicester, Liverpool, Manchester, and Bristol. Its spread was aided by the gang structures that had been cultivated among black British youth by the rudeboy subculture; these gangs proved to be a breeding ground for Rastafari themes. British Rastafari gained increasing attention in the 1970s through reggae’s popularity, although the police commonly regarded it as a criminal sub-culture. Following Marley’s death, the British Rasta community declined. According to the 2001 United Kingdom Census there are about 5000 Rastafari living in England and Wales. Clarke described Rastafari as a numerically small but “extremely influential” component of black British life.
Rastafari also established in various continental European countries, among them the Netherlands, Germany, Portugal, and France, gaining a particular foothold among black migrant populations but also attracting white converts. In France for instance it established a presence in two cities with substantial black populations, Paris and Bordeaux, while in the Netherlands, it attracted converts within the Surinamese migrant community.
Australasia and Asia
Rastafari attracted membership from within the Maori population of New Zealand, and the Aboriginal population of Australia. A small Rasta community developed in Japan in the late 1970s and early 1980s, promoted by a practitioner named Jah Hiro. Rastafarian culture is also found in Israel, primarily with those who espouse the similarities between Judaism and Rastafarianism.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 11; Edmonds 2012, p. 92; Sibanda 2016, p. 182.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Barrett 1997, p. viii.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 240; Cashmore 1983, p. 6.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 92.
- ^ Mhango 2008, pp. 223, 225–226.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Chawane 2014, p. 218.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 240; Ifekwe 2008, p. 106.
- ^ King 2002, p. 136.
- ^ Soumahoro 2007, p. 43.
- ^ Hansing 2001, p. 733; Hansing 2006, p. 62.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 71–72.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 188; Bedasse 2010, p. 267; Edmonds 2012, p. 92; Glazier 2012, p. 614; Chawane 2014, p. 214.
- ^ Chawane 2014, p. 214.
- ^ Chawane 2014, p. 216.
- ^ Banton 1989, p. 153; Cashmore 1989, pp. 158–160.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Bedasse 2010, p. 961.
- ^ Hansing 2006, pp. 62–63.
- ^ King 2002, p. 13.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 49; Bedasse 2010, p. 961.
- ^ Middleton 2006, p. 158.
- ^ Lewis 1993, p. 14.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 82; Ifekwe 2008, p. 111; Edmonds 2012, p. 32; Chawane 2014, p. 217.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barrett 1997, p. 82.
- ^ Forsythe 1980, p. 64; Barrett 1997, pp. 2, 103; King 1998, p. 51; Middleton 2006, p. 152; Glazier 2012, p. 614; Chawane 2014, p. 218.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 8.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 187.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 8; Chawane 2014, p. 218.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 8–9.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Edmonds 2012, p. 32.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. v.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 63.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 49–50, 63.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Clarke 1986, p. 64.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 111; Sibanda 2016, p. 183.
- ^ Chawane 2014, p. 231.
- ^ Rowe 1980, p. 14; Cashmore 1983, p. 74; Barrett 1997, p. 127; Sibanda 2016, p. 184; Chawane 2014, p. 232.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Sibanda 2016, p. 184.
- ^ Glazier 2012, p. 614.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 127; Mhango 2008, p. 222.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 73.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 64; Barrett 1997, p. 127.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 74; Clarke 1986, p. 64; Barrett 1997, p. 127.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 74.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Soumahoro 2007, p. 44.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 24; Barrett 1997, p. 83.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 6; Clarke 1986, p. 12.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Edmonds 2012, p. 36.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 65.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Clarke 1986, p. 67.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 67; Barrett 1997, p. 106.
- ^ Chawane 2014, p. 232.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Soumahoro 2007, p. 39.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Barrett 1997, p. 108.
- ^ Benard 2007, p. 93.
- ^ Soumahoro 2007, p. 46.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 175.
- ^ Bedasse 2010, p. 960; Edmonds 2012, p. 32.
- ^ Benard 2007, p. 94.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 34.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 67; Bedasse 2010, pp. 961, 964.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 15–16, 66; Bedasse 2010, p. 966; Edmonds 2012, pp. 32–33.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 65; Mhango 2008, p. 222; Bedasse 2010, p. 264.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 36; Kitzinger 1969, p. 246.
- ^ Soumahoro 2007, p. 44; Bedasse 2010, p. 960.
- ^ Bedasse 2010, p. 964.
- ^ Middleton 2006, p. 159; Edmonds 2012, p. 34.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Middleton 2006, p. 59.
- ^ Bedasse 2010, p. 968.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Cashmore 1983, p. 22.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 66.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 1.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 36.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 59; Edmonds 2012, pp. 36–37.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 63.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 60; Edmonds 2012, p. 37; Middleton 2006, p. 158.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 37.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 60; Barrett 1997, p. 253; Edmonds 2012, p. 37.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 60.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 25.
- ^ MacLeod 2014, p. 70.
- ^ MacLeod 2014, p. 71.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Cashmore 1983, p. 127.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 17.
- ^ Simpson 1955, p. 168; Cashmore 1983, p. 129; Clarke 1986, p. 17; Barrett 1997, p. 111; Edmonds 2012, p. 38.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Clarke 1986, p. 81.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 240.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Clarke 1986, p. 13.
- ^ Simpson 1955, p. 169; Barrett 1997, p. 113.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 149; Clarke 1986, p. 81.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 150.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 82.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Edmonds 2012, p. 40.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 38–40.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 175–176; Edmonds 2012, p. 40.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 38.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 19.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 69; Barrett 1997, p. 111.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 173.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 69.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 71.
- ^ White 2010, p. 317.
- ^ Jump up to:a b White 2010, p. 314.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 77.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Edmonds 2012, p. 41.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 240; Middleton 2006, p. 163.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Edmonds 2012, p. 42.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 99.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 100; Edmonds 2012, p. 42.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 33; Barrett 1997, p. 172; Edmonds 2012, p. 42.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 85.
- ^ Middleton 2006, p. 163.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 7–8; Barrett 1997, pp. 248–249; Semaj 2013, p. 103.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 11.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 70.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 134.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 129.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 11, 70.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 11, 69.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barrett 1997, p. 119.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 74.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 75; Barrett 1997, p. 112.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 76.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 112.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 113.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 247; Clarke 1986, p. 75.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 73.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 79.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 79; Edmonds 2012, p. 47.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Clarke 1986, p. 83.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 177.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Clarke 1986, p. 50.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 247; Chevannes 1994, p. 150; Barrett 1997, p. 220.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 220.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, pp. 175–176, 179.
- ^ Middleton 2006, pp. 165–167.
- ^ Newland 2013, p. 205.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 178; Edmonds 2012, p. 96.
- ^ Rowe 1980, p. 13; Clarke 1986, p. 87; Barrett 1997, p. 241; Edmonds 2012, p. 95.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 96.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 178; Edmonds 2012, p. 95.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 178.
- ^ Rowe 1980, p. 16.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 97.
- ^ Rowe 1980, p. 15; Edmonds 2012, p. 98.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 95.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 88; Edmonds 2012, p. 98.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 98.
- ^ Rowe 1980, p. 15.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 98, 99.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 38.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 99.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 38; Kitzinger 1969, p. 253; Clarke 1986, p. 88; Semaj 2013, p. 106.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 78–79.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 253; Cashmore 1983, p. 79; Clarke 1986, p. 87; Edmonds 2012, p. 109.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 109.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 87–88.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 37.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 103–104.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Clarke 1986, p. 88.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, pp. 178–179; Clarke 1986, p. 87.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 87; Edmonds 2012, p. 107.
- ^ Turner 1991, p. 86.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 253; Cashmore 1983, p. 79; Clarke 1986, p. 88; Barrett 1997, p. 209; Edmonds 2012, p. 99.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 37; Clarke 1986, p. 88; Edmonds 2012, p. 100; Sibanda 2016, p. 192.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 35; Kitzinger 1969, pp. 254–255; Cashmore 1983, p. 79; Sibanda 2016, pp. 180, 181, 191.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Sibanda 2016, p. 192.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, pp. 178–179.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 53.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Edmonds 2012, p. 57.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 262.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Edmonds 2012, p. 55.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 88; Edmonds 2012, p. 54.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 100.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 56; Chawane 2014, p. 234.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 56–57.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 57.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barrett 1997, p. 125.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 58–59.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 59.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 60.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Edmonds 2012, p. 61.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 60–61.
- ^ Semaj 2013, p. 106.
- ^ Semaj 2013, p. 107.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 47; Chawane 2014, p. 224.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 129; Chawane 2014, p. 225.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 48; Chawane 2014, p. 224.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 89.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 51; Benard 2007, p. 90; Edmonds 2012, p. 53.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 89; Edmonds 2012, p. 48.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 89; Edmonds 2012, pp. 48, 55.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 48.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 49, 55.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 130; Edmonds 2012, p. 56.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 56.
- ^ Hamid 2002, p. xxxii.
- ^ Benard 2007, p. 95, 96; Edmonds 2012, p. 55.
- ^ Benard 2007, pp. 91–92.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 129.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 93.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Edmonds 2012, p. 58.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Clarke 1986, p. 94.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 94; Barrett 1997, p. 123; Edmonds 2012, p. 58.
- ^ King 2002, p. 5.
- ^ King 2002, p. 4.
- ^ King 2002, p. 24; Edmonds 2012, p. 115.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 93; Barrett 1997, p. 162.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 113.
- ^ Jump up to:a b King 2002, p. 24.
- ^ Jump up to:a b King 2002, p. 46.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. vii.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 117.
- ^ King 2002, p. 57.
- ^ King 2002, p. 56.
- ^ Jump up to:a b King 2002, p. 96.
- ^ King 2002, p. 100.
- ^ Jump up to:a b King 2002, p. 102.
- ^ King 2002, p. xiii.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Barrett 1997, p. 245.
- ^ Partridge 2004, p. 178.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 45.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Edmonds 2012, p. 47.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 92.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 92–93.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 46, 47.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 103.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 92; Chevannes 1994, p. 167; Edmonds 2012, p. 45.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 2, 38.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 92; Edmonds 2012, p. 37.
- ^ King 2002, p. xx; Edmonds 2012, p. 47.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 269; Semaj 2013, p. 108.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d White 2010, p. 308.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 159; Barrett 1997, p. 143; White 2010, p. 307.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 160; Barrett 1997, p. 143.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c White 2010, p. 307.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 143.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 160.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 83; Barrett 1997, p. 141; Edmonds 2012, p. 47.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 83; Edmonds 2012, p. 47.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 49.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 83; Edmonds 2012, p. 49; Sibanda 2016, p. 184.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 141; Edmonds 2012, p. 49; Sibanda 2016, p. 184.
- ^ White 2010, p. 309.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 267.
- ^ Kitzinger 1966, p. 35; Clarke 1986, p. 85; Barrett 1997, p. 142; Edmonds 2012, p. 48.
- ^ Rowe 1980, p. 15; Chevannes 1994, pp. 157–158; Barrett 1997, p. 142.
- ^ Chevannes 1994, pp. 165–166.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 247; Clarke 1986, p. 85; Barrett 1997, p. 131.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 131; Edmonds 2012, p. 48.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 242; Clarke 1986, p. 92.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. ix; Hansing 2001, p. 741; Chawane 2014, p. 225.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 89; Barrett 1997, p. 137; Edmonds 2012, p. 43.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 90; Barrett 1997, p. 137.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 44.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 157; Clarke 1986, p. 90; Edmonds 2012, p. 42.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 90; Edmonds 2012, pp. 44, 45.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barrett 1997, p. 140.
- ^ Kitzinger 1969, p. 242.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 62–63; Clarke 1986, p. 53.
- ^ Forsythe 1980, p. 64; Edmonds 2012, p. 45.
- ^ Barrett 1997, pp. 257–258; Mhango 2008, p. 233.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 90.
- ^ Chevannes 1994, pp. 157–158.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 42–43.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barrett 1997, p. ix.
- ^ White 2010, p. 310.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 139.
- ^ “Rastafarians win suit allowing them to bare dreadlocks at work”. NY daily news. New York. August 8, 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2010 – via The Associated Press.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Chevannes 1994, p. 2.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 24; Chevannes 1994, p. 3.
- ^ Chevannes 1994, p. 3.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 25.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 24.
- ^ Chevannes 1994, p. 120.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 25; Barrett 1997, p. 21.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 25; Barrett 1997, p. 22.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 26.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 26; Barrett 1997, p. 25.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 7.
- ^ Francis 2013, p. 52.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 27.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Clarke 1986, pp. 27–28.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 29–34; Barrett 1997, pp. 75–76; Francis 2013, pp. 54–56.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 32–33.
- ^ Francis 2013, p. 66.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 18.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 34; Chawane 2014, p. 221.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 34.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 34–35.
- ^ Clarke 1986, pp. 41–42.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 43.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke 1986, p. 44.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 22; Soumahoro 2007, pp. 38–39.
- ^ Soumahoro 2007, p. 38.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 35; Edmonds 2012, p. 7; Semaj 2013, p. 99; Chawane 2014, p. 221.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 3.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 46; Lewis 1993, pp. 1–2.
- ^ Lewis 1993, p. 2; Barrett 1997, p. 81; Edmonds 2012, p. 9.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 46; Lewis 1993, p. 2.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 46.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 46; Barrett 1997, pp. 85–86; Edmonds 2012, pp. 11, 13.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 25; Clarke 1986, p. 46; Barrett 1997, p. 86; Edmonds 2012, pp. 13–14.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 26; Barrett 1997, p. 87; Edmonds 2012, pp. 14–15.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 87; Edmonds 2012, p. 15.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Clarke 1986, p. 47.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 27; Clarke 1986, p. 47; Barrett 1997, p. 89.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 10.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 49; Barrett 1997, p. 93.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 15.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 16.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 50; Barrett 1997, p. 92.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 28; Clarke 1986, p. 50; Barrett 1997, p. 93.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 28.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 28–29; Clarke 1986, p. 50; Barrett 1997, pp. 95–98; Edmonds 2012, p. 19.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 29–30; Barrett 1997, pp. 98–99; Edmonds 2012, pp. 19–20.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 22.
- ^ King 2002, p. 79.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 51; Barrett 1997, pp. 158–160; King 2002, pp. 82–83; Edmonds 2012, p. 24.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Clarke 1986, p. 51.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 146.
- ^ King 2002, p. 52.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 51; Edmonds 2012, p. 25.
- ^ King 2002, p. 103.
- ^ King 2002, p. 81.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 52; Edmonds 2012, p. 26.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 54; Edmonds 2012, pp. 25–26.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 55.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 108.
- ^ King 2002, pp. 100, 102.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 53.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 52; Lewis 1993, p. 12; Lewis 1994, pp. 290–291; King 2002, pp. 105, 108–111.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 220; King 1998, p. 41; King 2002, pp. 91–92; Edmonds 2012, p. 27.
- ^ Lewis 1994, p. 12; Lewis 1994, p. 291; Edmonds 2012, p. 27.
- ^ King 2002, p. 106.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 27.
- ^ King 2002, pp. 121–122.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 28.
- ^ King 2002, p. 120.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 29.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 29–30.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 30.
- ^ Semaj 2013, p. 98.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 30–31.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 52.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 91; King 2002, p. xvii.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 52–53.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Edmonds 2012, p. 69.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 88–89.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Edmonds 2012, p. 62.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 25.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 59, 62.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 63.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Edmonds 2012, p. 64.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 182; Edmonds 2012, p. 64.
- ^ Middleton 2006, p. 157.
- ^ Lewis 1993, p. 11; Barrett 1997, p. 227; Bedasse 2010, pp. 961, 962; Edmonds 2012, p. 64.
- ^ Bedasse 2010, p. 962; Edmonds 2012, p. 64.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 323.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 67.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 229; Edmonds 2012, p. 65.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 66–67.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 68.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 54; Barrett 1997, p. 230.
- ^ Bedasse 2010, pp. 961–962.
- ^ Lewis 1993, p. 11.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 68–69.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 71.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 14; Edmonds 2012, p. 71.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 94.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 94–95.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 89.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hansing 2006, p. 63.
- ^ Cashmore 1984, p. 3.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 85.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 55.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 6.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 128.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 9.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 57.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, pp. 57–58.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Clarke 1986, p. 59.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 97.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hansing 2001, p. 733.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hansing 2006, p. 64.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Clarke 1986, p. 16.
- ^ “Jamaica”. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (US State Department). September 14, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- ^ Barrett 1997, p. 2.
- ^ Barrett 1997, pp. 2–3.
- ^ Barrett 1997, pp. 2, 241.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 87.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 81.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Edmonds 2012, p. 82.
- ^ Hansing 2001, p. 734; Hansing 2006, p. 65; Edmonds 2012, pp. 82–83.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 82–83.
- ^ Hansing 2001, p. 736; Hansing 2006, p. 69.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Edmonds 2012, p. 72.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 76.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 78.
- ^ White 2010, pp. 304, 306–307.
- ^ Middleton 2006, p. 152.
- ^ Middleton 2006, pp. 154–155.
- ^ Middleton 2006, pp. 161–162.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Edmonds 2012, p. 79.
- ^ Turner 1991, p. 82.
- ^ Sibanda 2016, p. 182.
- ^ Chawane 2014, p. 220.
- ^ Mhango 2008, p. 234.
- ^ Newland 2013, p. 225.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 54; Edmonds 2012, p. 72.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 176; Cashmore 1983, p. 54.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 58.
- ^ Cashmore 1983, p. 56.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 176; Edmonds 2012, p. 74.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, pp. 74–75.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 61.
- ^ “Rastafari at a glance”. BBC. October 2, 2009. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- ^ Edmonds 2012, p. 83.
- ^ Clarke 1986, p. 98.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Cashmore 1981, p. 173.
- ^ Cashmore 1981, p. 173; Hansing 2001, p. 733; Benard 2007, p. 90.
- ^ “Religions – Rastafari: Rastafarian history”. BBC. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- ^ King 2002, p. 101.
- ^ “Jamaica in the Desert”. Haaretz. April 8, 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
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no i gave them a chance but that only lasted a second. if they would have been cool things would have been different
fuck the writers strike. but i will quit after this book i think. or atleast quit doing it like this. but who knows
i was offered true mercy
ive watched so much history channel and shit
ive been torchered enough if the decisions mine i vote not to merge the realms i promise if i can die at peace to never return and if that dosen’t happen…………………….they will send me into the mirky mist for a thousand years then i will return. thats what i feel. if you want me to return someday i will accept that for a good death too
my friend came at about 8 in the morning and he crushed up a line of adderall way too big to be that………i got really fucked up, looked in my wallet and there were way too many dollar bills. we went for a drive, i drove, we stopped and bought bandannas, during the drive i felt so at peace when i almost lost consciouesness, but i didn[t, eventually we went home and he left. that night i gave birth. i cursed every person i could think of in my texts to him even god, actually the only person i didn’t curse was him.
we were gonna move to colorado together and i was gonna use my one time interest free no down payment military housing lone to buy a house. but then i met katie and he didn’t like her because she “was” a banger but she isn’t one now.
oh when i woke up that morning there was a colorfull paper crain on my sprinkler. we never talked about what happened, but i know what i believe
|Founded||1968; 51 years ago|
|Founding location||Salinas, California|
|Criminal activities||Arms traffickingAssaultAuto theftBurglaryDrug traffickingExtortionMurderRobberyShoplifting|
|Rivals||Sureños, Mexican Mafia, Aryan Brotherhood, Crips, Bloods (L.A. County), Fresno Bulldogs|
Norteños (Spanish: [noɾˈteɲos] meaning Northerners; Norteñas for females) are the various, loosely affiliated street gangs that pay tribute to Nuestra Familia while in U.S. federal and state correctional facilities. Norteños may refer to Northern California as Norte. Their biggest rivals are the Sureños from Southern California. The statewide north-south dividing line between Norteños and Sureños has roughly been accepted as Salinas and Fresno. The gang’s membership primarily consists of Mexican Americans, but has members of other Latino American groups (in most cases Salvadorans) and some African American and Caucasian members.
In 1968, Mexican American inmates of the California state prison system separated into two rival groups, Norteños (northerners) and Sureños (southerners), according to the locations of their hometowns. Norteños, affiliated with Nuestra Familia, were prison enemies of the Southern Latinos, who are composed of members and affiliates of La Eme, better known as the Mexican Mafia. While La Eme had initially been created to protect Mexicans in prison, there was a perceived level of abuse by members of La Eme towards the imprisoned Latinos from rural farming areas of Northern California. The spark that led to the ongoing war between Norteños and members of the Mexican Mafia involved a situation in which a La Eme allegedly stole a pair of shoes from a Northerner. This event put into motion the longest-running gang war in the state of California and the founding of Nuestra Familia.
Norteños use the number 14 which represents the fourteenth letter of the English alphabet, the letter N, in order to pay allegiance to Nuestra Familia. It is sometimes written in Roman numerals as XIV, or a hybrid of Roman and Arabic numerals, X4. Norteño emblems and clothing are based on the color red, and sometimes black. A typical Norteño outfit is being “flamed up” including a red belt, red shoes, and red shoelaces. They will also favor sports team apparel that shows their affiliation through symbolism such as the Nebraska Cornhuskers, UNLV Rebels and San Francisco 49ers. Some Norteños will tattoo themselves with four dots. A Norteño derogatorily refers to a Sureño as a “scrap” (Hispanicized scrapa) or “Sur rat” (south rat). Norteños also lay claim to images of the Mexican-American labor movement, such as the sombrero, machete, and the logo of the United Farm Workers which is a stylized black Aztec eagle (“Huelga bird”).
Tagging (graffiti) to vandalize a rival gang’s territory
Norteños have trafficked drugs across the Mexican border. Their receiving members include other Norteños, and in a few cases Mexican narcs.
On January 9, 2005, in Ceres, California in Stanislaus County, Officer Sam Ryno was the first to respond to a call of a man with a gun in front of George’s Liquors. Andres Raya, a U.S. Marine on leave after serving in Iraq, was armed with an SKS rifle and opened fire on officers, hitting Officer Ryno and killing Sergeant Stevenson. Raya was shot dead some time later after he opened fire on SWAT team members.
Law enforcement officials claimed Raya had been involved in gangs for years prior to him signing up for military service. Modesto authorities discovered information during the investigation into the shooting that shows Raya was a Norteño gang member who was not involved in combat during his tour of duty in Iraq. A cooperative effort between local law enforcement, federal and military agencies revealed a large amount of information about Raya in a short amount of time.
Operation Black Widow
Federal law enforcement agencies, long unable to infiltrate the group, began to step up their investigations in the late 1990s. In 2000 and 2001, 22 members were indicted on Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) charges including several who were allegedly serving as high-ranking gang leaders while confined in Pelican Bay State Prison in northern California. Thirteen of the defendants pleaded guilty; the other cases are still ongoing. Two of the defendants face the death penalty for ordering murders related to the drug trafficking. The largest of the federal investigations was Operation Black Widow. In the aftermath of Operation Black Widow, the five highest ranking leaders of the Norteños were transferred to a federal supermax prison in Florence, Colorado.
- ^ “Tracking Surenos – Article – POLICE Magazine”. Policemag.com. February 1, 2000. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Gang Injunction”. Oaklandcityattorney.org. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Gangs in the United States” (PDF). Narcotics Digest Weekly: 1–12. October 4, 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2006.
- ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2013. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
- ^ “Report” (PDF). sampsonsheriff.com.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Reiterman, Tim (February 24, 2008). “Small towns, big gang issues”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008.
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Nortenos”. Gang Prevention Services. Archived from the original on April 20, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- ^ Kinnear, Karen L. (2008). Gangs: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. p. 192. ISBN 1-59884-125-4.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “Federal indictments crack vast prison crime ring”. The Press Democrat. Archived from the original on May 8, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2001.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hennessey, Virginia (November 23, 2003). “An End to the Cycle”. The Monterey County Herald. Archived from the original on April 30, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Bulwa, Demian (May 27, 2005). “Sureño gang’s threat growing in Bay Area”. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- ^ Barkan, S. E., & Bryjak, G. J. (2011). Fundamentals of criminal justice: A sociological view. (2nd ed., p. 115). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Learning.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Herendeen, Susan (September 20, 2007). “Gangs thriving in Modesto”. The Modesto Bee. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved June 13,2009.
- ^ Finz, Stacy; Stannard, Matthew B. “Police shoot Marine dead after local sergeant is slain / Liquor store’s video surveillance camera recorded shootout” from San Francisco Chronicle (January 11, 2005)
- ^ New Information About Andres Raya and His Gang Affiliation, press release from City of Ceres (January 14, 2005)
- ^ “Why Andres Raya Snapped”. http://www.counterpunch.org. January 20, 2005. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
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she will be the last thing i ever think. i love yall too. bye
she was drunk as fuck and somebody gave her colodipins. i kicked that bitch out and got her to go to the neighbors so she wouldn’t freeze to death. she passed out there but we brought her home and yes we got in a domestic but i was doing it out of true love. the neighbor said shed die if i didn’t keep her awake. she said she wanted me to die basicly but i guess she wanted to die too? no she said that, i dont remember it, but i do. well i let her go to sleep. then i woke her up and said “before you die, i want you to know that i love you” then i came and wrote this. now im going to cuttle with her the rest of her life. some other bitch said to kick her out and i told that bitch to leave and never to return
but she cant have any more children
the voices want the love of my life to leave me but she has nowhere to go. i will stay with her as long as she needs me but i am going to loose her and when that happens im going to politley ask for a gun so i can escape into the mist, and if nobody helps me there will be a path of destruction
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The essentials of the Maya calendar are based upon a system which had been in common use throughout the region, dating back to at least the 5th century BCE. It shares many aspects with calendars employed by other earlier Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Zapotec and Olmec and contemporary or later ones such as the Mixtec and Aztec calendars.
By the Maya mythological tradition, as documented in Colonial Yucatec accounts and reconstructed from Late Classic and Postclassic inscriptions, the deity Itzamna is frequently credited with bringing the knowledge of the calendar system to the ancestral Maya, along with writing in general and other foundational aspects of Maya culture.
- 4Calendar Round
- 5Long Count
- 6Supplementary Series
- 7819-day count
- 8Short count
- 9See also
- 12External links
Further information: Maya astronomy
The Maya calendar consists of several cycles or counts of different lengths. The 260-day count is known to scholars as the Tzolkin, or Tzolkʼin. The Tzolkin was combined with a 365-day vague solar year known as the Haabʼ to form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haabʼ, called the Calendar Round. The Calendar Round is still in use by many groups in the Guatemalan highlands.
A different calendar was used to track longer periods of time and for the inscription of calendar dates (i.e., identifying when one event occurred in relation to others). This is the Long Count. It is a count of days since a mythological starting-point. According to the correlation between the Long Count and Western calendars accepted by the great majority of Maya researchers (known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson, or GMT, correlation), this starting-point is equivalent to August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or September 6, in the Julian calendar (−3113 astronomical). The GMT correlation was chosen by John Eric Sydney Thompson in 1935 on the basis of earlier correlations by Joseph Goodman in 1905 (August 11), Juan Martínez Hernández in 1926 (August 12) and Thompson himself in 1927 (August 13). By its linear nature, the Long Count was capable of being extended to refer to any date far into the past or future. This calendar involved the use of a positional notation system, in which each position signified an increasing multiple of the number of days. The Maya numeral system was essentially vigesimal (i.e., base-20) and each unit of a given position represented 20 times the unit of the position which preceded it. An important exception was made for the second-order place value, which instead represented 18 × 20, or 360 days, more closely approximating the solar year than would 20 × 20 = 400 days. The cycles of the Long Count are independent of the solar year.
Many Maya Long Count inscriptions contain a supplementary series, which provides information on the lunar phase, number of the current lunation in a series of six and which of the nine Lords of the Night rules.
Less-prevalent or poorly understood cycles, combinations and calendar progressions were also tracked. An 819-day Count is attested in a few inscriptions. Repeating sets of 9 days (see below “Nine lords of the night”) associated with different groups of deities, animals and other significant concepts are also known.
Main article: Tzolkʼin
The tzolkʼin (in modern Maya orthography; also commonly written tzolkin) is the name commonly employed by Mayanist researchers for the Maya Sacred Round or 260-day calendar. The word tzolkʼin is a neologism coined in Yucatec Maya, to mean “count of days” (Coe 1992). The various names of this calendar as used by precolumbian Maya people are still debated by scholars. The Aztec calendar equivalent was called Tonalpohualli, in the Nahuatl language.
The tzolkʼin calendar combines twenty day names with the thirteen day numbers to produce 260 unique days. It is used to determine the time of religious and ceremonial events and for divination. Each successive day is numbered from 1 up to 13 and then starting again at 1. Separately from this, every day is given a name in sequence from a list of 20 day names:
Classic Maya 5
Classic Maya 5
|01||Imix||Imix||Imix (?) / Haʼ (?)||11||Chuwen||Chuen||(unknown)|
|03||Akʼbʼal||Akbal||Akʼbʼal (?)||13||Bʼen||Ben||C’klab[clarification needed]|
|04||Kʼan||Kan||Kʼan (?)||14||Ix||Ix||Hix (?)|
|07||Manikʼ||Manik||Manichʼ (?)||17||Kabʼan||Caban||Chabʼ (?)|
|NOTES:The sequence number of the named day in the Tzolkʼin calendarDay name, in the standardized and revised orthography of the Guatemalan Academia de Lenguas MayasAn example glyph (logogram) for the named day. Note that for most of these several different forms are recorded; the ones shown here are typical of carved monumental inscriptions (these are “cartouche” versions)Day name, as recorded from 16th-century Yukatek Maya accounts, principally Diego de Landa; this orthography has (until recently) been widely usedIn most cases, the actual day name as spoken in the time of the Classic Period (c. 200–900) when most inscriptions were made is not known. The versions given here (in Classic Maya, the main language of the inscriptions) are reconstructed on the basis of phonological evidence, if available; a ‘?’ symbol indicates the reconstruction is tentative.|
Some systems started the count with 1 Imix, followed by 2 Ikʼ, 3 Akʼbʼal, etc. up to 13 Bʼen. The day numbers then start again at 1 while the named-day sequence continues onwards, so the next days in the sequence are 1 Ix, 2 Men, 3 Kʼibʼ, 4 Kabʼan, 5 Etzʼnabʼ, 6 Kawak and 7 Ajaw. With all twenty named days used, these now began to repeat the cycle while the number sequence continues, so the next day after 7 Ajaw is 8 Imix. The repetition of these interlocking 13- and 20-day cycles therefore takes 260 days to complete (that is, for every possible combination of number/named day to occur once).
The earliest known inscription with a Tzolkʼin is an Olmec earspool with 2 Ahau 3 Ceh – 220.127.116.11.0, September 2, -678 (Julian astronomical).
|Hieroglyph||Classic Periodglyph sign||Meaning of glyph|
|Hieroglyph||Classic Periodglyph sign||Meaning of glyph|
|19||Wayebʼ||five unlucky days|
Main article: Haabʼ
The Haabʼ was made up of eighteen months of twenty days each plus a period of five days (“nameless days”) at the end of the year known as Wayeb’ (or Uayeb in 16th-century orthography). The five days of Wayebʼ were thought to be a dangerous time. Foster (2002) writes, “During Wayeb, portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolved. No boundaries prevented the ill-intending deities from causing disasters.” To ward off these evil spirits, the Maya had customs and rituals they practiced during Wayebʼ. For example, people avoided leaving their houses and washing or combing their hair. Bricker (1982) estimates that the Haabʼ was first used around 550 BCE with a starting point of the winter solstice.
The Haabʼ month names are known today by their corresponding names in colonial-era Yukatek Maya, as transcribed by 16th-century sources (in particular, Diego de Landa and books such as the Chilam Balam of Chumayel). Phonemic analyses of Haabʼ glyph names in pre-Columbian Maya inscriptions have demonstrated that the names for these twenty-day periods varied considerably from region to region and from period to period, reflecting differences in the base language(s) and usage in the Classic and Postclassic eras predating their recording by Spanish sources.
Each day in the Haabʼ calendar was identified by a day number in the month followed by the name of the month. Day numbers began with a glyph translated as the “seating of” a named month, which is usually regarded as day 0 of that month, although a minority treat it as day 20 of the month preceding the named month. In the latter case, the seating of Pop is day 5 of Wayebʼ. For the majority, the first day of the year was 0 Pop (the seating of Pop). This was followed by 1 Pop, 2 Pop as far as 19 Pop then 0 Wo, 1 Wo and so on.
Because the Haabʼ had 365 days and the tropical year is 365.2422 days, the days of the Haabʼ did not coincide with the tropical year.
A Calendar Round date is a date that gives both the Tzolkʼin and Haabʼ. This date will repeat after 52 Haabʼ years or 18,980 days, a Calendar Round. For example, the current creation started on 4 Ahau 8 Kumkʼu. When this date recurs it is known as a Calendar Round completion.
Not every possible combination of Tzolkʼin and Haabʼ can occur. For Tzolkʼin days Imix, Kimi, Chwen and Kibʼ, the Haabʼ day can only be 4, 9, 14 or 19; for Ikʼ, Manikʼ, Ebʼ and Kabʼan, the Haabʼ day can only be 0, 5, 10 or 15; for Akbʼalʼ, Lamat, Bʼen and Etzʼnabʼ, the Haabʼ day can only be 1, 6, 11 or 16; for Kʼan, Muluk, Ix and Kawak, the Haabʼ day can only be 2, 7, 12 or 17; and for Chikchan, Ok, Men and Ajaw, the Haabʼ day can only be 3, 8, 13 or 18.
A “Year Bearer” is a Tzolkʼin day name that occurs on the first day of the Haabʼ. If the first day of the Haabʼ is 0 Pop, then each 0 Pop will coincide with a Tzolkʼin date, for example, 1 Ikʼ 0 Pop. Since there are twenty Tzolkʼin day names and the Haabʼ year has 365 days (20*18 + 5), the Tzolkʼin name for each succeeding Haabʼ zero day will be incremented by 5 in the cycle of day names like this:
|1 Ikʼ||0 Pop|
|2 Manikʼ||0 Pop|
|3 Ebʼ||0 Pop|
|4 Kabʼan||0 Pop|
|5 Ikʼ||0 Pop…|
Only these four of the Tzolkʼin day names can coincide with 0 Pop and these four are called the “Year Bearers”.
“Year Bearer” literally translates a Mayan concept. Its importance resides in two facts. For one, the four years headed by the Year Bearers are named after them and share their characteristics; therefore, they also have their own prognostications and patron deities. Moreover, since the Year Bearers are geographically identified with boundary markers or mountains, they help define the local community.
The classic system of Year Bearers described above is found at Tikal and in the Dresden Codex. During the Late Classic period a different set of Year Bearers was in use in Campeche. In this system, the Year Bearers were the Tzolkʼin that coincided with 1 Pop. These were Akʼbʼal, Lamat, Bʼen and Edznab. During the Post-Classic period in Yucatán a third system was in use. In this system the Year Bearers were the days that coincided with 2 Pop: Kʼan, Muluc, Ix and Kawak. This system is found in the Chronicle of Oxkutzcab. In addition, just before the Spanish conquest in Mayapan the Maya began to number the days of the Haabʼ from 1 to 20. In this system the Year Bearers are the same as in the 1 Pop – Campeche system. The Classic Year Bearer system is still in use in the Guatemalan highlands and in Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.
East side of stela C, Quirigua with the mythical creation date of 13 baktuns, 0 katuns, 0 tuns, 0 uinals, 0 kins, 4 Ahau 8 Cumku – August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendarMain article: Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
Since Calendar Round dates repeat every 18,980 days, approximately 52 solar years, the cycle repeats roughly once each lifetime, so a more refined method of dating was needed if history was to be recorded accurately. To specify dates over periods longer than 52 years, Mesoamericans used the Long Count calendar.
The Maya name for a day was kʼin. Twenty of these kʼins are known as a winal or uinal. Eighteen winals make one tun. Twenty tuns are known as a kʼatun. Twenty kʼatuns make a bʼakʼtun.
The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days from the Mayan creation date 4 Ahaw, 8 Kumkʼu (August 11, 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or September 6 in the Julian calendar -3113 astronomical dating). But instead of using a base-10 (decimal) scheme, the Long Count days were tallied in a modified base-20 scheme. Thus 0.0.0.1.5 is equal to 25 and 0.0.0.2.0 is equal to 40. As the winal unit resets after only counting to 18, the Long Count consistently uses base-20 only if the tun is considered the primary unit of measurement, not the kʼin; with the kʼin and winal units being the number of days in the tun. The Long Count 0.0.1.0.0 represents 360 days, rather than the 400 in a purely base-20 (vigesimal) count.
Since the Long Count dates are unambiguous, the Long Count was particularly well suited to use on monuments. The monumental inscriptions would not only include the 5 digits of the Long Count, but would also include the two tzolkʼin characters followed by the two haabʼ characters.
Misinterpretation of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar was the basis for a popular belief that a cataclysm would take place on December 21, 2012. December 21, 2012 was simply the day that the calendar went to the next bʼakʼtun, at Long Count 18.104.22.168.0. The date on which the calendar will go to the next piktun (a complete series of 20 bʼakʼtuns), at Long Count 22.214.171.124.0.0, will be on October 13, 4772.
|1 Winal||20 Kʼin||20|
|1 Tun||18 Winal||360||1|
|1 Kʼatun||20 Tun||7,200||20|
|1 Bʼakʼtun||20 Kʼatun||144,000||394|
|1 Piktun||20 Bʼakʼtun||2,880,000||7,885|
|1 Kalabtun||20 Piktun||57,600,000||157,704|
|1 Kʼinchiltun||20 Kalabtun||1,152,000,000||3,154,071|
|1 Alautun||20 Kʼinchiltun||23,040,000,000||63,081,429|
Many Classic period inscriptions include a series of glyphs known as the Supplementary Series. The operation of this series was largely worked out by John E. Teeple (1874–1931). The Supplementary Series most commonly consists of the following elements:
Lords of the Night
Main article: Lords of the Night
Each night was ruled by one of the nine lords of the underworld. This nine-day cycle was usually written as two glyphs: a glyph that referred to the Nine Lords as a group, followed by a glyph for the lord that would rule the next night.
A lunar series generally is written as five glyphs that provide information about the current lunation, the number of the lunation in a series of six, the current ruling lunar deity and the length of the current lunation.
The Maya counted the number of days in the current lunation. They used two systems for the zero date of the lunar cycle: either the first night they could see the thin crescent moon or the first morning when they could not see the waning moon. The age of the moon was depicted by a set of glyphs that mayanists coined glyphs D and E:
- A new moon glyph was used for day zero in the lunar cycle.
- D glyphs were used for lunar ages for days 1 through 19, with the number of days that had passed from the new moon.
- For lunar ages 20 to 30, an E glyph was used, with the number of days from 20.
Count of Lunations
The Maya counted the lunations. This cycle appears in the lunar series as two glyphs that modern scholars call the ‘C’ and ‘X’ glyphs. The C glyph could be prefixed with a number indicating the lunation. No prefixing number meant one, whereas the numbers two through six indicated the other lunations. There was also a part of the C glyph that indicated where this fell in a larger cycle of 18 lunations. Accompanying the C glyph was the ‘X’ glyph that showed a similar pattern of 18 lunations.
The present era lunar synodic period is about 29.5305877 mean solar days or about 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 2+7/9 seconds. As a whole number, the number of days per lunation will be either 29 or 30 days, with the 30-day intervals necessarily occurring slightly more frequently than the 29-day intervals. The Maya wrote whether the lunar month was 29 or 30 days as two glyphs: a glyph for lunation length followed by either a glyph made up of a moon glyph over a bundle with a suffix of 9 for a 29-day lunation or a moon glyph with a suffix of 10 for a 30-day lunation. Since the Maya didn’t use fractions, lunations were approximated by using the formula that there were 149 lunations completed in 4400 days, which yielded a rather short mean month of exactly 4400/149 = 29+79/149 days = 29 days 12 hours 43 minutes and 29+59/149 seconds, or about 29.5302 days.
Some Mayan monuments include glyphs that record an 819-day count in their Initial Series. These can also be found in the Dresden codex. This is described in Thompson. More examples of this can be found in Kelley. Each group of 819 days was associated with one of four colors and the cardinal direction with which it was associated – black corresponded to west, red to east, white to north and yellow to south.
The 819-day count can be described several ways: Most of these are referred to using a “Y” glyph and a number. Many also have a glyph for Kʼawill – the god with a smoking mirror in his head. Kʼawill has been suggested as having a link to Jupiter. In the Dresden codex almanac 59 there are Chaacs of the four colors. The accompanying texts begin with a directional glyph and a verb for 819-day-count phrases. Anderson provides a detailed description of the 819-day count.
During the late Classic period the Maya began to use an abbreviated short count instead of the Long Count. An example of this can be found on altar 14 at Tikal. In the kingdoms of Postclassic Yucatán, the Short Count was used instead of the Long Count. The cyclical Short Count is a count of 13 kʼatuns (or 260 tuns), in which each kʼatun was named after its concluding day, Ahau (‘Lord’). 1 Imix was selected as the recurrent ‘first day’ of the cycle, corresponding to 1 Cipactli in the Aztec day count. The cycle was counted from katun 11 Ahau to katun 13 Ahau, with the coefficients of the katuns’ concluding days running in the order 11 – 9 – 7 – 5 – 3 – 1 – 12 – 10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2 – 13 Ahau (since a division of 20 × 360 days by 13 falls 2 days short). The concluding day 13 Ahau was followed by the re-entering first day 1 Imix. This is the system as found in the colonial Books of Chilam Balam. In characteristic Mesoamerican fashion, these books project the cycle onto the landscape, with 13 Ahauob ‘Lordships’ dividing the land of Yucatán into 13 ‘kingdoms’.
- ^ Tedlock, Barbara, Time and the Highland Maya Revised edition (1992 Page 1) “Scores of indigenous Guatemalan communities, principally those speaking the Mayan languages known as Ixil, Mam, Pokomchí and Quiché, keep the 260-day cycle and (in many cases) the ancient solar cycle as well (chapter 4).”
- ^ Miles, Susanna W, “An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation.” In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, p. 273. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.
- ^ “Maya Calendar Origins: Monuments, Mythistory, and the Materialization of Time”.
- ^ See entry on Itzamna, in Miller and Taube (1993), pp.99–100.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Academia de las Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala (1988). Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala: Documento de referencia para la pronunciación de los nuevos alfabetos oficiales. Guatemala City: Instituto Indigenista Nacional. For details and notes on adoption among the Mayanist community, see Kettunen & Hemke (2005), p. 5.
- ^ Tedlock (1992), p. 1
- ^ “Mythological” in the sense that when the Long Count was first devised sometime in the Mid- to Late Preclassic, long after this date; see e.g. Miller and Taube (1993, p. 50).
- ^ Voss (2006, p. 138)
- ^ See separate brief Wikipedia article Lords of the Night
- ^ Classic-era reconstructions are as per Kettunen and Helmke (2005), pp. 45–46.
- ^ Edmonson, Munro S. (1988). The Book of the Year MIDDLE AMERICAN CALENDRICAL SYSTEMS. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-87480-288-1.
- ^ Kettunen and Helmke (2005), pp. 47–48
- ^ These names come from de Landa’s description of the calendar and they are commonly used by Mayanists, but the Classic Maya did not use these actual names for the day signs. The original names are unknown. See Coe, Michael D.; Mark L Van Stone (2005). Reading the Maya Glyphs. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-500-28553-4.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Coe, Michael D.; Mark L Van Stone (2005). Reading the Maya Glyphs. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-500-28553-4.
- ^ Zero Pop actually fell on the same day as the solstice on 12/27/−575, 12/27/−574, 12/27/−573 and 12/26/−572 (astronomical year numbering, Universal Time), if you don’t account for the fact that the Maya region is in roughly time zone UT−6. See IMCCE seasons. Archived August 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Boot (2002), pp. 111–114.
- ^ For further details, see Thompson 1966: 123–124
- ^ Kettunen, Harri; Helmke, Christophe (2014). “Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs”(PDF). Wayeb, Comenius University in Bratislava, The Slovak Archaeological and Historical Institute. p. 51.
- ^ Thompson 1966: 124
- ^ For a thorough treatment of the Year Bearers, see Tedlock 1992: 89–90; 99–104 and Thompson 1966
- ^ See Coe 1965
- ^ Tedlock 1992: 92
- ^ Miles, Susanna W, “An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation.” In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, pp. 273–84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.
- ^ Thompson, J. Eric S. Maya Hieroglyphic Writing, 1950 Page 236
- ^ Teeple 1931:53
- ^ Thompson Maya Hieroglyphic Writing 1950:240
- ^ Linden 1996:343–356.
- ^ Schele, Grube, Fahsen 1992
- ^ Teeple 1931:67
- ^ Grofe, Michael John 2007 The Serpent Series: Precession in the Maya Dresden Codex page 55 p. 206
- ^ Maya Hieroglyphic Writing 1961 pp. 212–217
- ^ Decipherment of Maya Script , David Kelley 1973 pp. 56–57
- ^ Star Gods of the Maya Susan Milbrath 1999, University of Texas Press
- ^ “Lloyd B. Anderson The Mayan 819-day Count and the “Y” Glyph: A Probable association with Jupiter”. Traditional High Cultures Home Page. Archived from the original on May 6, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- ^ Coe, William R. ‘TIKAL a handbook of the ancient Maya Ruins’ The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvalia, Philadelphia, Pa. 1967 p. 114
- ^ Roys 1967: 132, 184–185
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maya calendar.|
- Day Symbols of the Maya Year at Project Gutenberg 1897 text by Cyrus Thomas
- date converter at FAMSI This converter uses the Julian/Gregorian calendar and includes the 819 day cycle and lunar age.
- Interactive Maya Calendars
- Maya Calendar, Date conversions, contemporary year version, Tzolkin and Haab day in Calendar Rounds
i was with my girlfriend outside on 12-12-2019 love love day in 2019 the year of artificial intelligence, i found out that when i was in the hospital that al charged my girlfriend 20 dollars to come visit the cat. so i told everyone i was gonna do it and i was gonna wait till he came out of the room but my girlfriend said something and i dont remember what it was but that was the sign to go into his room and dump a tuppaware container full of water on him he didn’t have a shirt on i couldn’t find the picture
i was over at kims and i took a shit and it stuck to the toilet i looked away and when i looked back it was no longer stuck to the toilet and it had changed